The DEMO Diet

Your personal experimental diet


Purpose of food


Losing weight

Nutrition advice

DEMO diet






Fermented dairy

Falsehoods about dairy



Olive oil



Mercury in fish


Kitchenware toxicity




Washing vegetables

Elimination diet

Carnivore diet

Fiber doubts

Food highlights

What I eat

What I cook

Experience with inflammation


Cooking tips

Maximizing lifespan


Health tests


Choosing a mattress

Home design tips

All specified weights (grams, ounces) are relative to the average person who consumes 2'000 kilocalories per day.

The following is the result of my research during and after I've (willingly) lost over 20% of my weight, at a rate of about 1 kilogram (2.2 pounds) per month; after more time I've lost 25% (from the top weight).

I wanted to lose this weight because I had an undesired amount of fat on my abdomen (which is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease), my knees started shaking while going up the stairs, and I had a general state of fatigue after walking for a while.

The result is that I've reached the weight that I had when I was thin (and young), and some times I feel like a feather when I walk.

Most of the physical exercise that I did was to walk (only during the warm season, 30...60 minutes a day, and much faster than most people). This was contrasted with sitting on a chair for 10 hours a day. While I have returned to the weight from my youth, I have not been able to get a flat abdomen, and some fat is still on the abdomen (even years later). This is to be expected considering that I have not done strenuous physical exercise.

I can't say how my new way of eating has affected my mental capacity, which is critical in my line of work, because I have been living under tremendous stress for many years both before and after the weight loss, and I am aware that stress and exhaustion are the main enemies of a sharp mind.

This article is written for the average person who wants to eat simple, or to lose weight. People who have diseases usually associated with obesity, like diabetes, should perform extra research which refers specifically to their condition.

The summary of this article is:

  • Limit ultra processed food (= the kind made mostly in a factory) as much as possible.

  • Limit sugar as much as possible.

  • Limit refined carbohydrates (like sugar, flour, cereals) and refined fats (like oils, lard, butter, melted cheese) as much as possible.

  • Focus on the quality of the food.

  • Eat in such a way so that you feel at the edge of hunger at least at one moment during the day, but actual hunger, not simply the need to eat more food. Excess calorie intake is associated with multiple health risks, regardless of the type of the source food. Limiting ultra processed food and sugar will make this much easier.

Purpose of food

The body asks for food because it needs energy, water and essential nutrients (like vitamins, minerals and aminoacids which form proteins). In general, most nutrients are found in vegetables, while most aminoacids are found in meat. Energy (which is measured in calories) is found in all types of food, but is mostly present in foods made from seeds and meat.

The main reason why people get fat is that they eat foods which contain more calories than their bodies consume. However, the body doesn't require a fixed number of calories, but a range which varies significantly even during a single day.

Because of this variation of energy, for reasons that you will read later, you must not adopt a diet which starves you, you must change your eating style forever.

If you eat more calories than your body's average needs are, the body will either store the extra calories (which means that you will get fatter) or will send more energy to the muscles (which means that you will feel more energetic).

If you eat less calories than your average needs are, the body will reduce its activity and will send less energy to your muscles. This means that if you simply eat fewer calories, you will just feel less energetic and you will not lose weight.

This is why, if you want to lose weight, you have to eat the smart way.

You can lose weight by either doing some physical tasks, or you can reduce the number of calories that you eat.

The average person will not lose weight by doing strenuous physical activity because the body consumes energy very efficiently, so it's much easier to reduce the number of calories that your body assimilates by reducing the amount of calories that you eat. The big problem is that the faster you consume energy, the more intensely your body will ask you for food to compensate the lost energy. Also, tiredness resulted from physical effort leads to muscle exhaustion not (abdominal) fat consumption.

As an example, the body consumes about 800 kilocalories while running 12 kilometers in an hour, 450 kilocalories per hour of swimming, 400 kilocalories per hour of jogging, 200 kilocalories while walking 4 kilometers in an hour (meaning, 600 kilocalories while walking 12 kilometers), 100 kilocalories per hour of vigorous sex. Yet, 100 grams (0.2 pounds) of bread contains about 250 kilocalories, meaning that you have to run for more than 20 minutes in order to consume the calories from 100 grams of bread.

You can see that if you walk or run the same distance (not time), you consume about the same amount of energy (600 versus 800 kilocalories), but running will make you much more tired and will also trigger hunger.

Genetics plays an important role. Someone who is fat may think that the people who do strenuous physical activity are thin to because they do such activity, but in reality they are thin because their genetics sends more energy to the muscles rather store it as fat. The genetics of these people makes them feel energetic, so they subconsciously try to consume their energy by doing strenuous physical activity. Women's bodies are genetically inclined to store more fat than men's bodies. However, the majority of people should not be concerned about this; with the correct diet, their bodies would have a normal amount of fat.

There is no magic in losing weight. There is no need for and there are no secrets, magic diets, recipes or potions. Most people can lose weight if they live by common sense phrases like "stop eating before you feel full" and "eat slowly so that your body can have the time to tell you that it's full", and if they understand some of the effects that various foods have on their bodies.


A calorie is a unit of energy, not a substance.

An approximate number of calories that are necessary for an average person is 2'000 kilocalories per day. Pizza (whose dough is mainly made from flour) contains 200...300 kilocalories per 100 grams, so a 700 grams pizza can even exceed the 2'000 kilocalories daily threshold.

The human body can obtain calories from the following types of food components / macronutrients, each of which contains a different amount of calories:

  • Proteins (the essential aminoacids form proteins): 4 kilocalories per pure gram of proteins (not of whole food). Examples of foods with a high content of proteins: meat. It's more difficult to get the essential aminoacids from vegetables than from meat. Edible hemp is a great vegetal source of proteins whose essential aminoacids rival meat in terms of balance, and lacks the famous hallucinogenic component. Red kidney beans, chickpeas and lentils are good enough vegetal sources of proteins; if canned, the label has to show close to 9% proteins. See this for the essential aminoacids balance.

  • Fats: 9 kilocalories per pure gram of fats (not of whole food). Examples of foods with a high content of fats: oils, butter, chips (because they absorb a lot of the oil in which they are fried), nuts. Fats can be: saturated, unsaturated (which can be monounsaturated and polyunsaturated), trans-saturated (which must be avoided).

  • Carbohydrates: 4 kilocalories per pure gram of carbohydrates (not of whole food). Examples of foods with a high content of carbohydrates: sugar (100%), flour (75%), bread (50%), cooked pasta 30% (raw pasta 75%, no water), cooked rice 30% (raw rice 80%, no water), boiled potatoes 20%, seeds (including nuts).

  • Alcohol: 7 kilocalories per pure gram of alcohol (not of whole liquid).

Through digestion, the body assimilates a number of calories equal with or lower than the one listed above. The actual amount varies significantly depending on the composition of the food and of the bacteria present in the digestive system. For example, some foods, like vegetables (including seeds, nuts) and fruits, can only be partly digested by the body, due to their high content of fiber (which is not easily digestible).

Cooking such foods breaks down the fiber, making the food more digestible, and also makes available more essential nutrients. However, some essential nutrients are destroyed by heat, so there is a balance in cooking.

The body constantly consumes calories, even during sleep, and varies considerably from person to person. This is called basal metabolic rate (BMR). The highest observed difference between the minimum and maximum BMR was 700 kilocalories.

Physical activity requires extra calories, but the body is very efficient in this regard. For example, the body's basal metabolism uses about 70% from the total consumed energy, physical activity uses about 20%, and the digestion of food uses about 10%.

The number of calories consumed by a person's body is not fixed, but is an interval. Depending on how many calories are available, the body generates more or less energy, so the person feels more or less energetic. Therefore, simply consuming more or less calories on a short term doesn't make a person fatter or thinner, but does make that person more or less energetic. The body must get used to assimilating a higher or lower amount of calories in order to change its weight.

If the body receives fewer calories than what it was used to get, it adapts to the conditions which it considers "difficult" and uses fewer calories to generate energy instead of consuming the extra required energy from the stored energy (which would lead to weight loss).

The number of calories which are necessary to a body depends on the body's weight, but also its composition. For example, while the body's fat does require energy, it requires fewer calories than the rest of the body, per gram.

When the body assimilates more calories than what it needs, it stores the extra calories as fat. It's recommended to go to sleep early, before midnight, else various hormones don't get a chance to act. It's also recommended to eat lighter and preferably with several hours before going to sleep.

The type of food also affects the rate of storing of fat. For example, the digestion of carbohydrates requires that the body produces insulin, and insulin favors the storing of fat.

To blunt the negative effect of a large amount of carbohydrates, in particular the refined ones, like a massive insulin rise, add a significant amount of fat, like extra virgin olive oil or fermented cheese, or pickles in vinegar.


Proteins, in a large amount, are essential to people.

Be aware that "proteins" is a generic word which encompasses any combination of aminoacids, but the body needs a specific combination of aminoacids which are essential for it, and meat provides a better balance among the essential aminoacids, than vegetables do. It's more difficult to get the essential aminoacids from vegetables than from meat.

The minimum amount of proteins eaten daily, converted to calories, should be 10% (50 grams) from the total daily calories. The maximum should be 35% (175 grams) because some negatives effects were observed at that level.

The percentage of proteins should increase for old people in order to preserve as much muscle as possible and avoid accidental falls (which severely limit the lifespan after the accident). For example, over 65 years old, the percentage should be 20% (100 grams).

The proteins should contain the essential aminoacids that people need, with the necessary balance; animal proteins (from meat, eggs, dairy) meet this requirement much better than vegetables.

Many cheeses contain 25% proteins, similar to meat, whose essential aminoacids balance is on par with that of meat.

Protein percentage

Some people insist that the amount of proteins that should be eaten has to be expressed as an absolute value instead of a percentage from the calories. While that is technically correct, it's also impossible for the vast majority of people to use it like that because the absolute value is per lean mass of the body, that is, the mass without fat, which most people don't know.

Aside from this, the absolute value refers to the stable lean mass of people, not to the increasing or decreasing mass, so diets and weight loss are irrelevant, so the protein percentage can be used. Anyone who has special nutrition requirements must make adjustments to the percentage of proteins, but the overwhelming majority of people can simply use the recommended percentage limits.

People should eat the types of food and the number of calories that keep their weight stable and their bodies able to function in the real world. This means that the amount of proteins that should be eaten can be expressed as a percentage, and this value can be widely known because anyone can add up the calories they eat in the specified context.

But what about (old) people who lose weight from their muscles and eat fewer calories than healthy people? In this case the absolute value doesn't apply either since their lean mass decreases, so just use the percentage and increase the value.


Fats should mostly come from polyunsaturated fats from fish and monounsaturated fats from plants. See details.

Animal proteins (from meat, eggs, fermented dairy) are other potentially good sources of fats.

Saturated fats have a different health effect depending on their source and their combination. The negative effects can be compensated by eating foods with a positive effect, so the net result depends on what exactly you're eating.


Oil should be obtained through cold pressing and stored in dark glass recipients.

Fats / oil digestion doesn't produce gas.

Oil has over twice the amount of calories that proteins and carbohydrates have, so be very careful; it's about 910 kilocalories per 100 ml, so 1 tablespoon (about 15 ml) has about 140 kilocalories.

It's safer to cook at high temperatures with oils which contain monounsaturated fats, like canola or extra virgin olive oil, because polyunsaturated fats (like in sunflower oil) get oxidized easier when heated.


The body doesn't require carbohydrates to be eaten because it makes the amount it needs. However, not eating carbohydrates leads to losing electrolytes, which then have to be consciously replaced.

If you eat anything that contains sugar, eat vegetables first because they'll form a (fiber) layer that delays the absorption of sugar. Fruits already have fiber.

To blunt the negative effect of a large amount of carbohydrates, in particular the refined ones, like a massive insulin rise, add a significant amount of fat, like extra virgin olive oil or fermented cheese, or pickles in vinegar.

Essential nutrients

If you feel that you want to eat something but you don't know what, or you eat and your cravings are not satisfied, it's likely that you have a deficiency of some essential nutrient(s) or water.

To get the daily recommended dose of many essential nutrients you would have to eat daily several kilograms (double for pounds) of foods for each specific essential nutrient (because each type of food usually has a single type of essential nutrient in a significant amount). Obviously that's not going to happen, and this puts into question the relevance of those doses.

The daily recommended doses are here.

Centuries ago it was easy to have such severe deficiency of essential nutrients that people died. An example of this was scurvy. In modern times, the available food is varied enough and contains enough essential nutrients that this doesn't happen, except for people who don't eat enough food, or varied enough food.

Essential nutrients are not magic, they are essential (just like air and water). They don't heal diseases (just like air and water), they don't make you a super-hero. They make the body function at peak efficiency, and therefore they strengthen the immune system and reduce the chances that you get sick. Eating more essential nutrients than the daily recommended dose will have no beneficial effect, and some of them might have a negative effect, but having too little of them is likely to increase the chances that you get sick.

Essential nutrients are essential for life. Without them, you might simply feel weak, or you might have muscular cramps, or your teeth might degrade faster, or in extreme cases it's possible to die (which is unlikely in modern times, but those who eat very little are exposed to this possibility).

Take calcium for example. The daily recommended dose (for adults) is about 1 gram per day. This can be absorbed from 100...200 g (3.5...7.1 oz) of cheese, 800 g (28.2 oz) of kefir, or 800 g (28.2 oz) of bread. A low amount of calcium intake may lead to muscular cramps, weak bones and teeth. However, a too high amount may lead to kidney stones.

Losing weight

The most efficient way to lose weight over a long term, that is, without shocking the body, is to reduce the number of calories that the body assimilates.

Don't follow crash / quick diets, change the way you eat forever! Don't starve your body, eat whenever you feel hungry, but eat varied foods, like vegetables and meat. If you starve your body, it will reduce the energy that it gives you and you would feel less energetic, and you will not lose weight (because your body will effectively consume less energy / calories).

The most important thing in life is to be happy, not slim. The mind has a fundamental effect on the body, on its mental and physical health, so if you feel bad about eating a certain way then that would not improve your life. Find your own long term balance.

Eat solid, cooked food. On one hand, the cooking (heat and cutting) destroys some nutrients from foods, but on the other hand it releases some nutrients and calories from the fiber, so there is a balance which depends on the type of food.

If you're not a vegetarian, eat meat for its proteins. It's more difficult to get the essential aminoacids from vegetables than from meat.

Avoid eating the foods which are made with refined carbohydrates (like sugar, flour, cereals) or refined fats (like oils, lard, butter, melted cheese), in particular ultra processed foods (= the kind made mostly in a factory) which keep most calories from these types of foods but throw away the parts that make your body tell you that it's full.

To blunt negative effect of a large amount of carbohydrates, in particular the refined ones, like a massive insulin rise, add a significant amount of fat, like extra virgin olive oil or fermented cheese, or pickles in vinegar.

Foods like bagels, chips and sodas should be avoided, or at least consider them occasional treats.

The sugar from fruit juice has the same negative effect on health as the sugar from sodas.

The main problem with the foods to avoid is not necessarily that they contain a large number of calories, but that they don't make you feel as satiated as other foods which contain fewer calories. What's more, refined carbohydrates (like sugar, flour, cereals) are easily digested, but uncooked vegetables (including seeds, nuts) and fruits are only partially digested, and actually require more calories to be used to digest them, which means that the body can only assimilate fewer calories even though, for example, nuts contain more calories than sugar (for the same weight).

It's important to understand that satiation is not proportional with the number of calories of food. It's currently unknown what causes satiation. One possible explanation is leptin.

You will hear that vegetables (including seeds, nuts) and fruits are awesome and that they contain all sorts of essential nutrients. But you will not hear that you would have to eat every day a huge amount of those foods (and many others) in order to get all the essential nutrients which can benefit you.

Vegetables and fruits have some advantages:

  • They keep you from eating the foods that are worse for your health, like foods based mostly on refined carbohydrates (like sugar, flour, cereals).

  • They have components which create a fluid environment in the mouth and digestive system, thus helping the beneficial bacteria from the digestive system, and create an oral environment which is less destructive on the teeth. Carbohydrates, sugar in particular, do the opposite, creating a sticky environment which slows down the activity of the beneficial bacteria from the digestive system, and increase teeth deterioration.

  • They contain a lot of water which is easily ingested in large quantities (unlike plain water which is simply drank). Also, the ingested water stays more time in the digestive system due to the fiber.

  • They contain fiber which controls the appetite.

  • Have few calories per unit of weight, fact which may trigger the body to say that it's full after ingesting a smaller amount of calories.

  • Have traces of essential nutrients (like vitamins and minerals); some have significant amounts of essential nutrients.

You should severely limit the amount of foods that are made from refined carbohydrates (like sugar, flour, cereals) or refined fats (like oils, lard, butter, melted cheese) because they contain a lot of easily digestible calories. For example, bread contains about 60% more calories that grilled chicken breast, and much easier to digest, which means that it's much easier to gain weight by eating bread than chicken. Even worse, foods which contain a lot of refined carbohydrates (like sugar, flour, cereals) will give you a lower feeling of satiety, so you are more likely to eat a greater amount of such foods, therefore ending up getting several times more calories than you get from meat.

You should stop eating before you feel full, and you should eat a low volume of food so that your stomach doesn't extend to allow more food. This way the stomach will get used to allowing a small amount of food, and you will therefore feel satiety quicker.

Eat cooked food. Cooking can mean various things, like applying heat or mincing. Through cooking, food must be made digestible (and dangerous bacteria must be destroyed). Cooking increases the amount of calories absorbed by the body.

You should avoid eating soup and a second course, eat only one of them. Soup contains a lot of calories since it's made with oil, or even flour, and many people eat bread with soup.

Don't try to lose weight quickly by starving your body because that would lead to reduced energy (and a general feeling of being tired), and a lack of nutrients (for example the lack of salt could lead to fainting).

It's recommended to drink water after eating, and especially after eating fruits which contain a lot of acids (like oranges, lemons, pineapple). Don't brush your teeth soon after eating such fruits because the acids may soften the enamel of the teeth, and the brushing could peel it slowly away. These acids, especially when they come from fruit juice rather than the fruit itself, may cause stomach problems to some people.

You should get used to reading the food composition from the product labels, so that you can compare the number of calories from various types of food. Make sure that you look at the number of calories for the same food weight, and perhaps calculate it for the portions that you actually eat. Be aware that some producers show with a big font the number of calories for a lower weight than standard (100 grams) so that the buyers would think the food actually contains fewer calories.

You should consider sweets as occasional treats, not food. This is because they are usually made with 50...75% refined sugar, flour and fat, which means that a cake could easily contain 3 times more calories than 100 grams of chicken breast. You should be most careful about sweets made with a lot of fats and a lot of sugar, like cakes, doughnuts; this combination appears to make it very difficult for the body to tell you to stop eating.

Juices (from fruits or artificial) contain a lot of calories due to the high amount of sugar (natural or factory added). For example, sodas have about 10% refined sugar (sugar), which for a 1 liter bottle a day is enormous. Fruit juice contains the same amount of natural sugars, and the negative effect on health is the same.

A kilogram (2.2 pounds) of vegetables offer, for example, the same amount of calories as 100 grams of average chocolate (with 50% sugar), but while such a chocolate is easily eaten at one time, a kilogram of fresh vegetables fits with difficulty in the average stomach. What's more, the body will assimilate, more slowly, a smaller amount of the calories from the vegetables because of their fiber.

Nutrition advice

The most important thing to know about diets is that there is no one single diet which is good for all people. Because of this, you have to experiment to find out what combination of foods works for you.

Be careful with what you're optimizing your diet for, because optimizing for one factor will negatively affect other factors. Possible optimization factors / targets: low cost of food, taste and feeling good, quickness of finishing meals, slim abdomen, low body fat, high muscle mass, longevity, low risk of cardiovascular disease, managing diabetes, reducing gas and bloating, reducing allergic reactions (to known or unknown components of food), low environmental impact, apparent health of output (like preferring a large amount of eliminated matter).

Much of the nutrition advice clings to very specific mechanisms that various foods trigger, without specifying what's the relevance of such mechanisms and in what context, especially when considering that all foods interact together, and interact with the lifestyle of people. The only thing that matters (for human health) is the result, not the individual mechanisms. Your diet should be result driven, not mechanism driven. This means that your diet should be driven by personal experimentation.

For example, while the sugar from fresh fruits has the same negative health effect as refined sugar has, fruits aren't just sugar and come with various nutrients and fiber. Eating fruits in their entirety may have a very different outcome (than refined sugar), and, indeed, in the Mediterranean diet, oranges and mandarins are correlated with a positive health effect. Blueberries are also correlated with a positive health effect.

Besides, how many people do you know who eat large amounts of fresh fruits daily and are sick because of those fruits? I'm not referring to the vegans who have problems that are related to the absence of certain foods (not to the presence of fruits). You can get sick from fruits very quickly (from too much sugar or water), but the thing is that the result is immediately visible and you're forced to correct your eating habits.

It should also be kept in mind that not everyone lives to be in the best physical shape, so following diets that eliminate life's pleasures is for few people.

No matter what the nutrition science and studies say, you are not the average (from those studies). What is the profile of the average people for whom the recommendations are made? Even if the studies are correct, on average, you can never know if the results apply to you in any way. Because of this, the only correct way to eat is to test what works for you, and adapt as necessary.

Healthy food isn't fancy. Focus on the quality of food.

The most important thing that will improve your health will likely be what you avoid eating (low quality food).

Ignore the fights of communities which focus on macronutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates).

Studies that talk about "low fat" or "low carb" diets are misleading. Ignore the nutrition studies that don't specify exactly what foods were used, which is most studies. This is because you have no idea what was the source of those macronutrients, and what other things they came with, so you can't compare them with your own diet.

For example, saturated fats have a different health effect depending on their source and their combination. There are 10 main types of saturated fatty acids, some with a positive effect, some with a neutral effect, some with a negative effect. Add to this many other types of unsaturated fatty acids, and you can see that talking about "fats" as one thing is misleading.

Studying generic food components in isolation, based on their effect on biological markers, and then pretending that they work in the same way when combined in diets is a stretch too far. Such studies don't show:

  • The relevance of the result in the real life of an entire population, because they don't study changes in life expectancy (but biological markers).

  • Whether the result can scale at the population level. Foods which may appear to have a positive effect in a study, may interact differently with all the factors present in an entire population. Other foods and behaviors will affect the result, be it in a positive or negative way.

  • What foods are the comparison reference, what foods are replaced, and what changes occur in the behavior of people.

The most useful way to study the effect of food is to study several complete diets, specifying the exact foods and cooking methods (preferably providing the food to the participants), and even specifying the lifestyle. The health risks, like smoking and diabetes, should be excluded in order to see the effect of the diets, not of the preexisting risks, and this makes the average diet even better.

One thing that studies should take into consideration is that while randomness is considered to be the correct scientific method, it may be wrong to randomly assign diets to people. This is because if some people feel the need to eat a certain diet, that may be because their bodies know that such a diet is healthier for them, so assigning a random diet may be detrimental. Obviously, this makes studies even more difficult because they should test both the random diet assignment and the preferred diet assignment, in order to see if there are differences for the same people.

When you research nutrition advice, be careful with the terminology and labeling that shorten complex explanations. For example, "high carb diet" is likely to mean a diet which is rich in vegetables and fruits, not in bread and cereals.

Nutrition advice is filled with bad advice and meaningless comparisons. For example the comparison "calories in versus calories out" is supposed to mean that a person can maintain a lean body by either decreasing the amount of ingested calories, or by increasing the amount of calories burnt through physical activity. This is meaningless because it ignores the fact that the absorbed calories may be lower than the ingested calories, and ignores how different types of food create satiation, and how the body reacts to foods with massively different results, both for people in general and for individuals. A basic example is that refined carbohydrates reduce satiation, so people (desire to) eat much more calories than they need.

Another meaningless comparison is "all carbohydrates are sugar". During my experience with inflammation, I was eating up to 400 g (14.1 oz) of rice per dinner, which is 120 g (4.2 oz) of simple carbohydrates, and had no problems because of that; cooked rice has 30% carbohydrates (raw rice has 80%, no water). But I could feel the negative effects of 90 g of sugar from fruits: generalized (energetic) slowness, the hot burning of the sugar as a fuel, a clear decrease in mental sharpness, the favorable environment in the throat for bacteria to develop (which makes it easier to catch a cold), and the horrible smell left on the tongue (/ in the mouth). Even worse, eating 50 g of chocolate with 50% sugar, so just 25 g of sugar, would immediately cause my body to negatively react to the incoming sugary sludge.

Before sugar triggers insulin production and affects the liver, it creates a sludge (in both the mouth / throat and in the digestive system) where the intestinal microbiota can't function properly. Fruits are fine to some extent because their fiber slows down the absorption of the sugar, and their acids partly neutralize the sludge, but much of the sugar is still available in easily absorbable form because chewing separates the sugary juice from the fiber. In contrast, the simple carbohydrates from carbohydrate-rich whole foods, like rice and potatoes (not fries) barely create a trace of a sludge, and are absorbed much slower.

The point is that carbohydrates aren't a problem, in general. It's specific forms of carbohydrates and of fats, specific foods, that are a problem. For the general healthy population, insulin doesn't seem to be a problem, it's just a mechanism which works as intended, so long as the carbohydrates don't come in actively bad foods. The big problem seems to be that we make our intestinal microbiota sick, and we don't know how and when it happens, as we can't see or feel the negative effects until it's too late, and even then they appear to be related to something else.

Keep in mind that bacteria isn't a nutrient and isn't required in a healthy diet, so if your own intestinal microbiota is sick, ingesting good bacteria isn't going to help so long as the cause of the sickness isn't eliminated, and may in fact amplify the microbiota imbalance. Similarly, ingesting fiber doesn't fix a sick microbiota. The root cause of the sickness must be eliminated!

Because of the way the body produces energy, most calories should come from fats and carbohydrates, split based on the personal results and the desired lifestyle. The body can use both fats and carbohydrates as fuel, but not necessarily as efficiently as when they are not combined. If the body couldn't use both, virtually all people would get fatter and fatter because they eat both fats and carbohydrates during a day. You can actually feel that fuels both are used during a day, if you eat only carbohydrates during a meal, and only fats during the next one, and you see that both meals give you energy within minutes. This shows that, at the very least, the body can process both fuels within hours of each other, if not more often.

However, if you do have inflammation, mental fog (even if your body feels energetic), or you feel physical or mental weakness every time you eat, try to go extreme in one direction, that is, either very little carbohydrates (and a lot of fats), or very little fats (and a lot of carbohydrates). It's possible that your microbiota or mitochondria have problems processing either fats and carbohydrates, or have problems switching between the two, so every time your food's composition switches between fats and carbohydrates, you get health problems. Before you change your diet, read my experience with inflammation.

The body uses proteins to build tissue (like muscles). Some sources say that the body can use only a limited amount of proteins, but it's not clear what happens with the excess. Some sources say that the excess is eliminated, some say that the excess is converted into carbohydrates / glucose by the liver. The second explanation doesn't explain why eating only proteins (without fats or carbohydrates) causes hunger, unless the converted amount is small. There is a study which shows that 100 g of proteins eaten in a single meal are used by the body to build muscle.

If your diet is very high in fats and you have low energy, it's possible that you eat too little salt / electrolytes.

Keep in mind that the macronutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates) are a percentage of the entire food, and differ even for the same type of food, so check the product labels. For example, wheat bread has 50% carbohydrates, so 100 grams (3.5 oz) of bread contain 50 grams (1.8 oz) of carbohydrates, which has 200 kilocalories, which makes 10% from the 2'000 kilocalories daily dose recommended for an average adult.

The calorie balance of some fatty meats, eggs and some types of cheese, where the fats and proteins are in about equal amount (check the product label), is 70% for fats, and 30% for proteins. Since fats have 9 kilocalories / gram and proteins have 4 kilocalories / gram, an equal amount of proteins and fats (equal by either percentages or grams) gives 13 calories / 2 grams, which means that the fats provide 70% (9 / 13), while the proteins provide 30% (4 / 13) of the calories.

In general, most of the weight loss will come from reducing the amount of calories you're eating, but in many cases it will come from what you're avoiding to eat (like refined carbohydrates), or from what you're eating new.

When you're trying to decide what kind of diet to follow, what foods you will eat most of the time, consider which best fits your lifestyle, rather the health claims being made for each of those diets. Always ask yourself what you have to spend now (in terms of time, money and energy) in order to prolong your life at its end.

For example, would it be worth for you to spend 3 years of your life when you are young, doing things that you don't want to do, in order to prolong your life with 3 years at its end? What if you add to this the fact that some diets make you feel miserable (for example gassy and bloated) all your life? Would it be better to prolong that misery instead of living a, perhaps, shorter but better life?

The greatest trick that nutrition science ever pulled was to start using the expression "eating food X will increase / decrease the risk of disease Y with percentage Z", which is now being waved in front of the public with all the power and fervor of religious relics and magic tricks, in order to get people to follow a specific diet, hoping that they won't notice the sleight of hand: (practical) relevance.

The first thing you should ask yourself is why you would want to optimize your life around disease Y. What does that risk mean for actual human life, outside of the data of the study? How does that risk translate over the entire lifespan of humans? The answer is that it doesn't translate because there are no decade-long studies to show that translation. In fact, most risks get lost in the noise of life, and the average population life expectancy doesn't depend much on the diet.

For example, consider a study which says that eating dirt correlates with an increase of heart disease by 50%. The average human listening would think that "I have to stop eating dirt or I have a fifty-fifty chance of dying in the next 12 months, and so on after that. But that's not the correct interpretation of the risk, and this is why, for example, people who eat wild fish (which is highly correlated with a decrease of heart disease) don't get to live 120 years while the average people live 80 years.

Another problem is that the average risk doesn't mean that every person has that average risk, but that some people are above the line which indicates a negative health effect, while some people are below that line. On average, the risk is above that line, but it could be the case that 40% of people are below the line and don't appear negatively affected (and may even be positively affected). Yet, the advice is the same for everyone.

Another trick is to direct people's attention to very limited factors, like the number of centenarians in certain areas (like the Blue Zones). But what's the relevance of the fact that for the entire population of a Blue Zone there are a few hundred extra centenarians? You can find anomalies of anything, somewhere in the world, if you look for them; anomalies are the result of multiple factors, not just one thing (like diet). The average lifespan would be a better representative of reality.

You've heard people saying that the "evidence shows X". The evidence shows nothing because the data that's gathered by studies can't speak any words, can't point to anything, can't draw any chart. It is humans who look at the data, presume or claim that's it's correct, and create narratives based on their (lack of) knowledge and, possibly, ideology and even corruption. Physics and chemistry are different because the constraints of Reality are immediate and absolute when you probe them: jump in the air and try to float.

It's unfortunate that people get away with claiming that the results of nutrition studies are a binary choice, because it's a simple information to convey, as if doing things one way means life and the other way means death.

What is the practical result of nutrition studies? How are the lifespan and quality of life affected by what was studied and recommended in the conclusions?

For example, some studies say that saturated fat is bad for health. Is it? Which type? In what amount? From what sources? What else was eaten? What is the actual chart / curve of all the people involved in the study? How far away are the results of all the people from the average? For how many people do the recommendations match in a study: 30%, 50%, 70%? Why are the same recommendations given to everyone? What about the people who eat contrary to what the study recommends, but are still healthy at the end of the study? Why don't studies show those results and recommend doing what those people do? Because other factors are involved? But those people are out there and they are recommended the same things.

The received answer is "Better safe than sorry." Aside from the fact that this answer doesn't prove anything either way (so it's just a manipulation technique), the problem is that many people aren't interested (for various reasons) in the diet and lifestyle that studies are recommending, especially considering that the vast majority of the recommendations don't change the lifespan and quality of life of people, they just get lost in the noise of life.

There is evidence which shows that controlling for the heme-iron from red meat makes the health risk much lower. It would be nice to see a randomized control study where they give people lard to eat daily, 50...100 g (40% saturated fat), in an omnivore or meat-based diet low in ultra processed food, spanning a few months. This is the closest to saturated fat that you can get. While butter can have 50% saturated fat, it's made from milk. The study has to show a marked increased in metabolic markers (not LDL), and can be stopped for the people who show such an increase (so as to not put them at unnecessary risk).

The biggest problem is that many people want to fit everyone in a single type of diet, be it meat based or plant based. It seems that this desire is born from the wrong belief that averages apply to everyone, or at least to the vast majority of people, and, therefore, that nutrition studies (which work with averages) apply to everyone. But even if that were so, who exactly are those people, as individuals?

The conclusion is that people must stop giving recommendations that were determined for the average person (average which is emergent, it doesn't actually exist), as if the recommendations are good for everybody. The people whose results are contrary to the average matter as much as the average people do. The average is why nutrition advice is in a catastrophic state, and why people were better off when there was no nutrition advice and people were eating as they were used to in their families (and they had no ultra processed food in their diet).

It's better to optimize the diet and lifestyle for the quality of life first, then for the lifespan, within reason.

A good way to enjoy foods which have negative health effects is to also eat foods which have positive health effects, to compensate the negative effects.

It's better to have a diet that can be enjoyed the entire life, even if it slightly reduces the lifespan, not merely add a few extra years at the end of life (when life can be least enjoyed). And, perhaps, the enjoyment and the lack of stress (with the reduced cortisol) bring health benefits and even compensate that lifespan reduction. In other words, do you want to live or Live?

Population-level data

You were told that the people in the Blue Zones eat very little meat (and other animal derived foods, like eggs and dairy products), while conveniently hiding the fact that in some of those zones (or in nearby zones with a similar lifespan) some people eat a lot of meat. Even more, you were not told that in at least 2 of those 5 zones only men have an increased lifespan (while women don't; talk about anomalies), and in another zone it wasn't possible to confirm the ages of the centenarians.

The plant-based narrative (of the Blue Zones) doesn't fit the data in any way. Some studies show that eating meat is associated with increased life expectancy. Outside of studies, in real life, with all factors interacting, plant-based diets and life expectancy don't match by country. There is in fact no large population with a plant-based diet and a top life expectancy.

Below, you can see the data for the 24 countries with a population over 5 million people in 2020, with the highest life expectancy, for the year 2020 (some data stops at the year 2019). Singapore isn't listed because there's no data to show. There are also 3 extra countries (China, USA and India), with the lowest listed life expectancy, for reference. This shows the real world of large populations.

The data was gathered by the Food and Agriculture Organization, and processed by OurWorldInData. The data was last verified on 2024.07.10.

You can compare, by country, the life expectancy and the consumption of meat, eggs, milk, vegetables, rice, potatoes, cacao, nuts. The life expectancy is specified in years, while the amount of food is specified in kg / capita / year (for nuts it's g / capita / day).

The rice, potatoes and nuts are supply; consumption may be lower. The rice supply means raw rice; when cooked, the weight would be about 2.7 times higher because of the water absorbed by the rice. The reason why rice and potatoes add up to more than vegetables likely has to do with different methodology being used to determine the values.

Limited data exists for cheese (not necessarily aged), for different years: 2023 (in pounds) and before 2017. Very limited data exists for fermented dairy drinks, for year 2008.

It's unknown how each food was used / cooked, which is important for its health effect. For example, meat, cheese and potatoes are not considered healthy when used in ultra processed food or fast food. For milk, that's not the amount of drank milk, but the amount of milk used in dairy products; it's not possible to know how much fermented versus unfermented dairy products were consumed, especially since the degree of fermentation is a range; only fermented dairy products are generally healthy. For cacao, the average chocolate has 50% sugar, which is not considered healthy. This means that even if such foods were to visibly improve health, a large amount listed isn't necessarily expected to correlate with a high life expectancy.

The methodology for determining some consumption values (like for rice and nuts) changed in the year 2010, which is why you may see a dramatic change.

You can also compare, by country, the death rates (per 100'000 people) from heart disease, stroke, obesity and diabetes. The prevalence of the non-lethal stage of diseases is different, like for diabetes.

The disadvantage of such an analysis is that the distribution of food in people isn't known, although it's unlikely to be surprising. The distribution can be understood with relative ease, like with this small sample for UK, sample which shows that an entire population isn't split in half eating meat and half vegans; 75% were eating meat (including fish) and only 2% were vegan.

The major advantage of such an analysis is that the size of the population of real people, living real lives, is in the hundreds of millions, and even billions, so anomalies either vanish or they are the proper normal, the proper average. Such a population, when split in countries (/ geographic region), can show that, in real life conditions, correlations between life expectancy and diet are lost in the noise of life.

In the table below, the highlighted cells are the top 12 consumers per food type, and the top 12 countries with the lowest death rates (so the better health).

You can see that there is no general correlation between the life expectancy and the diet (since the top consumers are distributed over the range of life expectancy), which means that any potential correlation depends on other factors. In fact, you can clearly see that the countries with a high standard of living and medical care also have a long life expectancy, regardless of the diet (since their diets vary wildly).

If you ignore the USA (and UK) whose life expectancy is commonly believed to be low because they have the highest consumption of ultra processed food, a strong positive correlation appears to exist between a high meat consumption and a high life expectancy. This could be because the countries with a high standard of living tend to eat more meat. The problem with this explanation is that the countries from the lower half of the life expectancy are also countries with a high standard of living.

The distribution of the red meat consumption is also interesting. Some countries with the highest life expectancy (like Hong Kong and Australia), eat a lot of red meat, in absolute terms. Switzerland and New Zealand are similar, but in relative terms. Australia also eats very little fish, and New Zealand isn't far, so it doesn't look like fish compensates the problems of red meat. These values don't match at all with the common narrative that red meat is a health problem.

But above all, what we can see is that despite the huge variations in food consumption, life expectancy barely moves for the countries with a high standard of living.

Life expectancy depends on what happens during the entire life of people, not just during one year, but you can see the statistics and trends for many years in the past. You can even see for the same country how a type of food goes up and down, yet the life expectancy goes mostly up.
















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This raises again the question of the profile of the average person for whom nutrition recommendations are made, and the relevance of this profile for actual individuals with their own lifestyles.

If nutrition advice can only give recommendations for average people and will ultimately be used by the entire population of a country (with people with all lifestyles), then why not look at what entire countries with long living people eat on average? The answer is that there are many factors involved, not only diet.

For example, in 2020, India was the country with the lowest meat consumption in the world, which made it the largest vegetarian experiment in the world. Yet, the average life expectancy of its people is well below the others, and, worse, its death rates from heart disease and stroke were the highest. What's more, in China, the consumption of vegetables was more than in any other country, yet the average lifespan was only 78 years. Greece, one of the homes of the Mediterranean diet, claimed by some to be plant-based, was eating 6.6 times more meat than India, yet its life expectancy was 11 years more.

Remarkably, while China had a much lower income (per capita) than USA, its rice consumption was much higher than in any other country, yet its life expectancy was still higher than that of USA, and its obesity and diabetes mortality rates were much lower, most likely due to a much lower consumption of ultra processed food. Add to this the fact that 3 countries with the highest life expectancy (Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea) were countries with the highest rice consumption. This isn't a recommendation to switch to a rice-based diet, but it's pointing out that the population level data doesn't show a problem for rice.

Diet is just one of the factors which affects lifespan, clearly not the most important one, and a diet (plant-based for India) can't in any way compensate the other factors. That's how little life expectancy is affected by diet, on average (and with limited ultra processed food), compared to the other factors, factors that we don't really know. Reality, at population level, involves all those factors, so anyone who is interested in being a part of a long lived population should eat and do what a long lived population eats and does.

But if the average diet were to actually have a major effect on lifespan, by definition, if you were to eat the average diet (as listed above), you would have the average lifespan (as listed above). But the average lifespan listed above includes people who have health problems which reduce their lifespan, like: smoking, obesity, sleeping too little, no physical exercise, eating a significant amount of ultra processed food and sugar. Remove such people from the data, and the average lifespan increases significantly over what's listed.

Why give nutrition recommendations based on imperfect nutrition studies with conflicting results, which look at foods in isolation, ignoring all other factors, therefore ignoring real life? So, why not just remove the clear toxins from food and then live life like the average long lived populations?

Nutrition studies should look at national statistics to see what foods countries consume, compare the countries and extract the common elements that show up in long lived populations, and those that show up in short lived populations, while considering the effects of other factors (because different countries have different living conditions and medical care).

Nutrition studies should also look at what people who are significantly older than the average (like 90 year old people) ate and what was their lifestyle throughout their life, because only then you can have the guarantee that something (diet or lifestyle) could in fact increase the lifespan beyond the average.

The DEMO diet

The word DEMO is short for "DEMOnstration".

The DEMO diet is a diet that you can experiment with and personalize. The diet is largely permissive and can be followed in the long term. You can avoid eating some of the listed foods, or you can eat other foods.

The goal of the diet is to provide you with information about various generally healthy foods that can be combined based on your needs and preferences.

Try to avoid optimizing your diet for just one or two types of food because even if a type of food fixes a problem you have, it may cause another one if it's not balanced by other types of food.

Main advice to follow:

  • Limit ultra processed food (= the kind made mostly in a factory) as much as possible.

  • Limit sugar as much as possible.

  • Limit refined carbohydrates (like sugar, flour, cereals) and refined fats (like oils, lard, butter, melted cheese) as much as possible.

  • Focus on the quality of the food.

  • Eat in such a way so that you feel at the edge of hunger at least at one moment during the day, but actual hunger, not simply the need to eat more food. Excess calorie intake is associated with multiple health risks, regardless of the type of the source food. Limiting ultra processed food and sugar will make this much easier.

From the food consumption table above, we can calculate the average amount of food consumed per person per day, for the top 12 countries with the highest life expectancy: meat - 351 g, eggs - 38 g, milk - 451 g, cheese - 45 g, vegetables - 346 g, rice - 202 g, potatoes - 312 g, nuts - 35 g, cacao - 7 g.

If life expectancy were to be influenced only by diet, this average diet would, by definition, produce an average life expectancy of 83.2 years. But life expectancy isn't influenced only by diet, so don't make a goal out of this average diet. This average life expectancy would be significantly higher for people who maximize their lifespan (for example people who don't smoke, aren't obese and limit ultra processed food and sugar). Keep in mind that, for example, the listed amount of milk isn't drank, as much of it is used to make other foods (like cheese).

Other interesting information that can be observed:

  • The average amount of food consumed per person per day, for the top 12 consumer countries: meat - 388 g, eggs - 48 g, milk - 685 g, cheese - 62 g, vegetables - 487 g, rice - 392 g, potatoes - 523 g, nuts - 53 g, cacao - 10 g.

  • The maximum amount of food consumed per person per day: meat - 578 g (Hong Kong), eggs - 71 g (Hong Kong), milk - 940 g (Denmark), cheese - 77 g (Denmark), vegetables - 1077 g (China), rice - 992 g (China), potatoes - 699 g (Netherlands), nuts - 81 g (Switzerland), cacao - 14 g (Iceland). Red meat (pork, beaf, sheep, goat): Hong Kong - 244 g, Australia - 194 g.

In the sections below you can find details about meat, vegetables, eggs, fermented dairy, nuts, chocolate, olive oil, and more.

Eggs and fermented dairy are the most complex foods that animals can provide for a long time, unlike meat. These foods have a lot of calories, proteins, fats and vitamins, and their essential aminoacids balance is on par with that of meat (see this for the essential aminoacids balance).

Eggs are more cost effective than fermented dairy, per gram of protein, and are much simpler to understand than fermented dairy. The downside is that eggs require cooking (so time and energy).

Fermented cheese is much more practical than fermented dairy drinks (like kefir) because it's more compact per calorie, and doesn't require a bottle. Also, fermented cheese will bring in the diet a fraction of the sugar that fermented dairy drinks bring, not because the drinks bring in a lot of sugar, but because fermented cheese barely has any sugar.

Meat isn't required because eggs and fermented dairy can provide all the needed proteins, and much of the needed calories and other nutrients.

Meat is more cost effective than aged cheese, per gram of protein. The downside is that meat requires cooking (so time and energy).

People who are allergic to either eggs or dairy can exclude them.

Limit ultra processed food

Limit ultra processed food (= the kind made mostly in a factory) as much as possible.

Ultra processed food is the kind of food made from multiple components, usually in a factory, usually containing preservatives (other than salt), and is designed to be ultra palatable, meaning that people have to make a massive mental effort to stop eating it. Ultra processed food can be made in a family kitchen, like deserts.

Ultra processed food should be avoided because:

  • Reduces satiation and people have to make a massive mental effort to stop eating it, so people eat much more calories than they need.

  • It's made with the cheapest components and contains unnecessary additives, preservatives, thickeners, emulsifiers, stabilizers (like xanthan gum, carageenan, guar gum, carob bean gum), sweeteners, which, at the very least, may cause gas and have a laxative effect.

  • The solution to an intolerance to natural foods is simple: eliminate that food from the diet and enjoy the rest of natural foods. But the chemicals used to make the ultra processed food palatable are put in all ultra processed food, and their use increases, so an intolerance to just one chemical means that people are intolerant to most ultra processed foods, which in some countries accounts for the majority of food. Unfortunately, a food intolerance isn't usually visible, and its negative health effects accumulate over years or even decades.

Refined carbohydrates (like sugar, flour, cereals).

Refined fats (like oils, lard, butter, melted cheese). Even if they are safe to eat, at the very least you don't need the extra calories. Using a tablespoon or two of refined fats for frying food is fine.

Sauces. They are mostly made with refined fats and sugar.

Combining a lot of refined fats with a lot of refined carbohydrates (especially sugar). Such a combination isn't present in natural food (natural vegetal foods have virtually no fats, animal derived foods have virtually no carbohydrates), but is present in ultra processed food, whether made in a factory or in a kitchen. This combination makes people overeat calories. Nuts do contain both fats and carbohydrates, but their satiation per calorie is also low, which reinforces this idea. Could it be that one of the (major) reasons of the metabolic disease experienced by the people who eat a lot of ultra processed food is the combination of a lot of refined fats with a lot of refined carbohydrates?

Smoked meat.

Ultra processed meats, like ham and salami.

Limit sugar

Limit sugar as much as possible.

There are tens of food ingredients that the food industry uses, which are sugar or have the same negative effects as sugar. The safest thing to do is to limit as much as possible anything which tastes sweet.

The need to eat sweets shows that you're not eating proper food, so your body isn't getting the nutrients it needs, and wants more nutrients. Instead of giving your body proper food, you give it sugar, which feels good and numbs your cravings for nutrients, but doesn't satisfy the nutrient deficiency.

Sugar has the same negative health effects, regardless of its source: it makes you want to eat more, produces inflammation (bad bacteria grow by eating sugar), and may create mental fog. Sugar, regardless of source (so including from fruits), creates a favorable environment in the throat for bacteria to develop, which makes it easier to catch a cold.

Before sugar triggers insulin production and affects the liver (the half of sugar which is fructose), it creates a sludge (in both the mouth / throat and in the digestive system) where the intestinal microbiota can't function properly.

Sugar in soft form has worse effects than sugar in hard form, so limit more strictly the sugar in drinks and creams. For example, cream-filled chocolate has worse effects than solid chocolate, and liquid honey has worse effects than solid / crystalized honey.

Very low sugar foods like meat, eggs, cheese, nuts and vegetables bring in only a few grams of sugar. Fruits and sweets bring in large amounts of sugar.

Fresh fruits are fine to eat, to some extent, but the effects of sugar are the same regardless of its source. While the fiber from fruits slows down the sugar absorption, the entire amount of sugar will still be processed by the body. Also, much of the sugar is still available in easily absorbable form because chewing separates the sugary juice from the fiber. Keep in mind that:

  • Foods which are not fresh fruits: fresh fruit juice, dried fruits.

  • If you want the long term health benefits of fruits without the disadvantages of sugar, eat vegetables. The only reason why people eat fruits is because their sugar makes them feel satisfying. If fruits had no sugar, they would be (treated as) vegetables.

  • In order for fruits to be satisfying, a large amount of them has to be eaten, which means ingesting a lot of sugar and water (which dilutes the intestinal microbiota, causing digestive problems).

  • Eating fruits in the evening or night may cause a restless and unsatisfactory sleep because their water has to be eliminated, and because their fiber and sugar may cause bloating and gas during digestion, which happens several hours after they are eaten (so during the night).

  • Many fruits contain acids which get into every crack in the teeth and cause pain when the teeth are brushed. There are types of (expensive) oranges and mandarins that lack the aggressive acids that most oranges and mandarins have.

If you eat deserts, try to limit yourself to only deserts which contain less than 25% sugar. If possible, also avoid deserts which contain fats (mostly found in creams).

Sugar content of fresh fruits: raspberries 3%, strawberries 5%, blackberries 5%, watermelon 6%, grapefruit 7%, sour cherries 8%, nectarines 8%, peaches 8%, oranges 9%, kiwi 9%, blueberries 9%, pears 10%, plums 10%, pineapple 11%, apples 12%, bananas 12%, sweet cherries 13%, mandarins 13%, mangos 14%.

Sugar content of drinks: carrot juice 6%, beetroot juice 9%, orange juice 9%, Coca-Cola 11%, Pepsi 12%, apple juice 12%.


Land animals

Each 100 g (3.5 oz) of chicken breast contain 22 g of proteins, which is 62% of the daily recommended amount. To get all the daily recommended proteins you need 160 g / 5.6 oz of chicken breast, but you should get proteins from other foods as well.

Examples: chicken, turkey. Chicken and turkey breast has proteins, but has no fats or carbohydrates, so it's not a good source of energy, which means that you have to add fats or carbohydrates to the meal.

Prefer meat from pasture-raised animals (who spend their daytime outdoors and can eat naturally from the soil), then from free-range animals (who are allowed access outdoors).

Wild fish

Each 100 g (3.5 oz) of wild fish contain 20...25 g of proteins, which is 40...50% of the daily recommended amount. To get all the daily recommended proteins you need 200...250 g / 7.1...8.8 oz of wild fish, but you should get proteins from other foods as well.

It's recommended to limit fish to maximum 400 g (14.1 oz) per week. Large fish, like tuna, should be limited more. Small fish, like sardines and herring, can be up to 200 g (7.1 oz) per day.

Fresh wild fish: sardine, herring, mackerel (not king), salmon, cod. Fresh can mean refrigerated or frozen.

Canned small wild fish: sardine, herring, mackerel (not king).

  • Make sure it says "wild caught" on the label.

  • The fish should be canned in water / brine. If there is oil in the can, throw away the oil because it's not of the best quality; even "olive oil" isn't extra virgin olive oil. Oil should not be thrown down the drain because it solidifies and will clog the pipes.

  • Canned sardines are very tasty, but the details matter. Try the ones that are boneless and skinless, or buy large sardines and remove their bones and skin before eating them.

  • Avoid anything with flavoring or sugar (usually in tomato sauce).

Farmed fish should generally be avoided:

  • If you buy farmed fish, buy only branded products and research the brand to understand how they do the farming. The fish should be wrapped in a package; prefer it refrigerated rather than frozen.

  • Farmed fish is generally fed with grains, whereas wild fish eats oceanic algae (and other fish), which is where the famous omega 3 essential fatty acid comes from. Without omega 3, farmed fish is no better than most land animals (which are also fed with grains).

  • Some farmed salmon is fed omega 3 supplements, which is ironic because people can take supplements without paying the premium price for such fish.

  • To see the difference in what the fish eats, buy farmed salmon and either frozen or smoked wild salmon, to compare their tastes. Make sure the frozen or smoked salmon is from wild salmon. Fry the fish, but not heavily because that would hide the true taste; most smoke comes out when the fish is fried. Most farmed salmon will taste like some undefined land animal because it's fed grains, so its missing the nutrients of wild salmon; low quality farmed salmon tastes dirty. Frozen and smoked wild salmon taste like wild salmon should taste, clean and crisp (/ very well defined).

  • Avoid the farmed salmon which leaves a lot of oil in the pan, when fried, so much oil that it looks like sauce. Farmed salmon should have under 9% fat; the packaged salmon should show this on the package.

  • There is farmed salmon whose quality is close to that of wild salmon, but so is its price.


Fresh or frozen vegetables provide fiber which slows down the absorption of refined carbohydrates (like sugar) and refined fats (like oils, lard, butter, melted cheese), and provide various essential nutrients.

Canned vegetables are fine if you throw away any fluid they contain (which is likely to contain sugar and particles from the material of the can) and rinse the content / vegetables with water. I've seen beans canned in water vapors.

Foods that are not fresh vegetables: fresh juice (from either vegetables or fruits), fruits (fresh, dried or in any other form), fries.

Vegetables should be well cooked.

Vitamin C is destroyed by heat, in time, so by cooking.

Edible hemp is a great vegetal source of proteins whose essential aminoacids rival meat in terms of balance, and lacks the famous hallucinogenic component.

Red kidney beans, chickpeas and lentils are good enough vegetal sources of proteins. They are close to each other in terms of amount of proteins, so you can mix them in any way you want. See this for the essential aminoacids balance of beans.

Each 100 g (3.5 oz) of beans (like red kidney beans, chickpeas and lentils) contain 9 g of proteins, which is 18% of the daily recommended amount. Canned beans show less on the label. To get all the daily recommended proteins you need 560 g / 19.8 oz of beans, but you should get proteins from other foods as well. Only about 80% of the proteins from beans are absorbed by the body, so the shown amount has to be increased with 25%, which means 840 g / 29.6 oz.

Beans (like red kidney beans, chickpeas and lentils) are low in methionine (an essential aminoacid), but the above amount contains all the required methionine. Methionine can be easily obtained from a small amount of some vegetal sources: Brazil nuts (30 g /1 oz), hemp seeds (40 g / 1.4 oz), sunflower seeds (70 g / 2.5 oz).

In order for vegetables to be satiating, a large amount of them has to be eaten, which means ingesting a lot of fiber, which causes gas.

Eating a significant amount of vegetables in the evening or night may cause a restless and unsatisfactory sleep because their water has to be eliminated, and because their fiber may cause bloating and gas during digestion, which happens several hours after they are eaten (so during the night). If intestinal microbiota isn't healthy, the abdominal area may later feel battered because of all the digestive effort, but the intensity of the effect varies based on the type of vegetables.

You should wash vegetables according to this.

Here, you can see what vegetables (and fruits) have the highest and lowest levels of toxic pesticides. If you ever ate, for example, strawberries and then realized that your fingers smell of chemicals, the pesticides in them are the reason.


During my experience with inflammation, one interesting realization was the effect of pickles on health.

Fats and proteins have no significant acidifying or alkalinizing effect in the body. However, bile and pancreatic fluid neutralize stomach acids, so too much could cause alkalinization, and a lot of them are required to digest fat.

More information about the acidity balance can be found here. The paper mentions that some foods, like dairy products, some types of nuts (like almonds) and most vegetables, which were causing me problems, have an alkaline effect. Other foods, like meat, eggs, rice and pasta, which were causing me little to no problems, have an acidic effect.

During my experimentation, I found out that eating pasteurized pickles made in vinegar made the mental fog disappear quickly, and virtually completely for many hours. However, I had to eat 360 g / 12.7 of (solid mass) pickled cucumbers. That's a lot of vinegar.

However, after two weeks, it seemed that the acid didn't solve the problem but forced the bacteria to move downward instead of upward, because some mental fog returned, and I started getting bloated and I was retaining a lot of water.

Eating a large amount of pickles for a long time may create other problems because it's too aggressive with the intestinal microbiota (like acidifying the digestive system too much), so a "pickle diet" isn't meant to be followed for a long time. For me, eating a jar of pickles per day started to cause mental fog after about 2 weeks, so I had to significantly reduce the amount.

Nevertheless, pickles did have a very interesting positive effect. Fiber, especially from beans, was causing writhing in my digestive system, and gas, but didn't increase the bulk of the output, as it's commonly thought, and didn't improve the easiness. In fact, it reduced the ouput as if the body was excessively trying to process it until not much was left. However, eating pickles did cause a massive improvement in the output's bulk, lack of stickiness (fiber, for example from oranges and beans, creates a lot of stickiness) and easiness.

Not all pickles are the same. If they don't taste sour, but taste rather bland or sweetish, they aren't good because there isn't enough vinegar or there is too much sugar. The sugar content should be under 3%.

The pickles were made in vinegar, not in water and salt, meaning that the (acetic) acid from the vinegar was important, not more bacteria (found in pickles made in salty water). Also, the pickles were eaten together with the food, so they mixed with the food.

Drinking vinegar (1 or 2 tablespoons in a glass with water, per meal) didn't work, likely because the vinegar isn't mixed with the food, so it doesn't stay with the food in the same part of the digestive system. Also, high quality vinegar is fermented and unpasteurized, so its bacteria can increase the imbalance of the intestinal microbiota.

There are food supplements with acetic acid in a powder form. The daily dose should be about 1'000...2'000 mg. Such pills didn’t seem to work for me. Either the brand that I was taking didn't contain enough active substance (despite of what was on the label), or the pickles have something else that matters.

Fermented vegetables

Vegetables should be fermented in water with salt in order to create bacteria which is beneficial for the digestive system.

Things which destroy (most of) the fermentation bacteria: vinegar, acetic acid, heat, pasteurization, desalting.

Most commercial canned vegetables are canned with vinegar, and very few bacteria survive such an acidic environment.

Pickled food is very likely to not contain fermentation bacteria, because of the vinegar or because they are pasteurized. However, pickles in vinegar bring acidity in the digestive system, and this acidity may be very useful.

Examples of fermented vegetables: sauerkraut (= fermented cabbage), kimchi.

Bacteria which is good for human health isn't a nutrient and isn't required in a healthy diet, so it's presence in or absence from food is irrelevant. If your own intestinal microbiota is sick, ingesting more bacteria isn't going to help so long as the cause of the sickness isn't eliminated, and may in fact amplify the microbiota imbalance.


Edible hemp is a great vegetal source of proteins whose essential aminoacids rival meat in terms of balance, and lacks the famous hallucinogenic component. See this for the essential aminoacids balance.

Hemp powder can and must be obtained through cold pressing / crushing. This is why hemp powder doesn't need to contain all the chemicals and sweeteners that other protein powders have.

Hemp seeds taste a bit like sunflower seeds, whereas hemp powder (made by the same manufacturer) tastes more like dirt.

Each 100 g (3.5 oz) of hemp seeds contain 32 g of proteins, which is 63% of the daily recommended amount. To get all the daily recommended proteins you need 160 g / 5.6 oz of hemp seeds, but you should get proteins from other foods as well.

Each 100 g (3.5 oz) of hemp powder contain 50 g of proteins, which is 100% of the daily recommended amount.


The essential aminoacids balance of eggs is on par with that of meat. See this for the essential aminoacids balance.

Each 100 g (3.5 oz) of eggs (scrambled) contain 10 g of proteins, which is 20% of the daily recommended amount, and 11 % fat (which includes the fat, likely butter, considering the shown amount of sugar / lactose). To get all the daily recommended proteins you need 500 g / 17.6 oz / 7 large eggs, but you should get proteins from other foods as well.

Eggs can provide the same amount of proteins as meat (like chicken breast), at the same price and quality. To get the same amount of proteins, the amount of eggs has to be twice the amount of meat. Eggs also have fat, which means that they also provide energy in the same price, while chicken breast can't because it has only proteins. It's much easier to find top quality eggs (than top quality chicken meat) because the producers prefer to keep the chickens that make them, to make many eggs for a long time.

Prefer eggs from pasture-raised chickens (who spend their daytime outdoors and can eat naturally from the soil), then from free-range chickens (who are allowed access outdoors).

In many countries there is a legally mandated labeling of the egg quality, label which indicates how the chickens (who made the eggs) were raised. The label may be some sort of keyword, category or code. Generally speaking, eggs from pasture-raised chickens have the best quality, then from free-range chickens; you should avoid other types of eggs. Where I live, the label which identifies the top quality eggs requires the chickens to be pasture-raised and to be fed organic food (ignoring what the chickens eat from the soil outside).

Be careful with eggs which are labeled "organic" / "bio" because these words may not mean what you think they mean, which is the highest quality, but may mean that the food of the chickens was organic, yet the chickens may have been raised in abject conditions. Always look for the legally mandated label of quality.

Labels like "omega 3" and "deep yellow yolk" don't say anything about the quality of the eggs.

Observational studies (which are low quality) have propagated the idea that eggs aren't healthy because they contain cholesterol. However, randomized control studies (which are high quality) have shown that eating up to 3 eggs per day has neutral or positive effects on blood cholesterol (source, in people with diabetes). No studies were made with more eggs per day.

Eggs can be cooked sunny-side-up, in extra virgin olive oil (1 or 2 tablespoons), with the yolk structure having a soft to medium hardness. They can also be made scrambled, which is useful when you want to mix other ingredients in the eggs. You can add fermented cheese over the eggs. Some cheeses, like white hard cheese, don't melt.

Fermented dairy

The essential aminoacids balance of milk and fermented dairy products (like cheese and kefir) is on par with that of meat; see this for the essential aminoacids balance.

Dairy products aren't good for people who are allergic to lactose, casein or histamines because dairy is generally high in them.

Fermented dairy is satiating without creating a feeling fullness and slowness in the stomach, and produces no gas, no bloating, no stomach cramps.

Dairy products, especially fermented ones (and even more, the moulded cheeses), are associated with a neutral or beneficial effect on health, despite their high saturated fat content. Milk and butter appear to be exceptions.

Fermented dairy products, and fermented foods in general, are generally healthy because they bring into the digestive system bacteria which produces short-chain fatty acids (which are healthy), bacteria which is beneficial for humans. The fermentation bacteria isn't required to be alive when the food is eaten because the food may already contain a significant amount of short-chain fatty acids. Fiber (from vegetables) ferments in the digestive system and also produces short-chain fatty acids, but at the cost of creating gas.

The only dairy product which appears to be fine to be consumed daily in a significant amount is cheese which is aged (at least a month). Cheese which is aged less than a month, and kefir, can be fine to a more limited extent. In Denmark, a country with one of the highest consumption of cheese, the average consumption of cheese per person per day is 77 g / 2.7 oz, while in France it's 72 g / 2.5 oz.

Any other dairy product, especially unfermented dairy products, like milk and butter, should be limited. If you do drink milk, try goat milk because its after taste feels much lighter than that of cow milk, as if it has much less sugar (although it doesn't).

Introducing air into cheese and (sour) cream, through whipping, and making their fat become even more easily absorbed by the body, seems to make them cause a dramatically negative health effect.

It's not possible to look at a certain product and know whether it contains beneficial fermentation bacteria or byproducts, which is why the desirable products are labeled in a special way which indicates their link to fermentation. Because fermentation is a complex process with a variable degree of fermentation, the labeling varies and isn't easy to understand.

A dairy product which is labeled to contain "lactic cultures" or "lactic acid starter (cultures)", like non-aged cheeses and sour cream, has something which is needed to start the fermentation process, but says nothing about whether the bacteria is still alive or whether the fermentation process did actually happen (and to what degree). Note that "lactic acid" is a byproduct of the fermentation started by "lactic acid starter (cultures)". Such dairy products should be monitored if you eat them regularly in large amounts.

The taste of fermented dairy products usually varies based on how long / strong the fermentation was. Sourness varies the most, but some products can taste bitter, and some can taste spicy. If you don't like the taste of the products which are strongly fermented, you can find products which are only slightly fermented. You can also eat them together with foods whose taste balances the taste of the fermented products, like red / yellow bell peppers. I've seen sheep cheese which was aged for 6 months, yet it was soft and its taste was similar to that of non-aged cheese and lacked any spiciness.

Prefer fermented dairy products made from goat or sheep milk over those made from cow milk. Goat and sheep cheeses have more short-chain fatty acids than cow cheeses, about 60% more. Many cows produce an inflammatory protein called A1 beta-casein (and it's nearly impossible to know if you eat that), while goats and sheep don't.

In the case of the dairy products made from raw milk, compared to those made from pasteurized milk, the manufacturing process is stricter to avoid bad bacteria, so the products are more expensive (and cheese is usually aged for many months). Lactic acid starter (cultures) are added after the milk is pasteurized, so the fermentation will occur whether the milk was raw or pasteurized. Raw milk has more bacteria which can benefit the intestinal microbiota, but it can also cause issues in some people because it's wild bacteria (unlike the controlled fermentation bacteria).

There are 3 main types of pasteurization (a higher temperature destroys more bacteria):

  • Low temperature: 63 Celsius / 145 Fahrenheit for 30 minutes. The usual label is "Pasteurized at low temperature".

  • High temperature: 72 Celsius / 161 Fahrenheit for 15 seconds. The usual label is "Pasteurized at high temperature"; an alternative label is HTST (High Temperature Short Time).

  • Ultra high temperature: 138 C / 280 F. The usual labels are UHT (Ultra High Temperature) and UP (Ultra Pasteurization). This type of pasteurization gives the product a very long shelf life (at least a month).

The only ingredients in dairy products should be: milk, whey, salt, and lactic acid starter (cultures). A coagulant (like animal or microbial rennet) may be present in cheese. Avoid products which contain additives, preservatives, thickeners, emulsifiers, stabilizers (like xanthan gum, carageenan, guar gum, carob bean gum), sweeteners, which, at the very least, may cause gas and have a laxative effect.

Milk, butter and cream are not (usually) fermented dairy products. The desirable products are labeled in a special way which indicates their link to fermentation.

Do not eat the low fat versions of fermented dairy products.

A dairy substitute product is not a dairy product.


Dairy products, fermented or not, are not healthy for people who are allergic to lactose or casein. Fermentation reduces the amount of lactose from milk.

Eating a lot of unfermented dairy products (like unfermented cheese, milk, butter, cream), or not fermented enough, especially when mixed with sugar, may cause a slight pain in the chest (= angina), or a heaviness in the chest (which feels like something makes the heart activity more difficult), or just tingling in the chest. If this happens once you start eating a lot of dairy products, change their type and make sure they are fermented. Other factors, like sugar (whether in fruits or deserts) and stress, can cause the same health problems. When I was eating a lot of cheese (sugar was also reduced), the (slight) angina I was having vanished completely; even in situations of stress when I was expecting it to appear, it didn't, it was literally zero.

Some fermented dairy products can cause too much fermentation in the digestive system, which can be felt as inflammation (in the digestive system). If this happens to you then change the product (even if it's only for a few days).

Heating or melting fermented dairy products makes the fats easier to absorb and destroys the fermentation bacteria (because of the high heat). Consumption of such products should be limited.

Avoid eating dairy products (at least the liquid ones) together with vegetables or fruits, because they can cause digestive problems. Cheese with vegetables is fine. Some deserts with dairy and fruits are fine in limited amounts.

Be careful with dairy products made with milk from cows that are raised in an accelerated manner. In the USA cows are raised even 3 times faster than in Italy. If a child were to reach adulthood (18 years old) in just 6 years, you would surely think that such a child can't be healthy.

Fermented cheese

Each 100 g (3.5 oz) of cheese (cheddar or similar) contain 23 g of proteins, which is 46% of the daily recommended amount. To get all the daily recommended proteins you need 220 g / 7.8 oz of cheese, but you should get proteins from other foods as well.

The fat content should be 20...35%. The protein content should be 15...25%; yellow cheese usually has 25%, while white cheese (like feta) usually has 15%. Salt should be maximum 2.5%; you can find good cheese with up to 4%, but that's quite salty. Sugar should generally be maximum 0.5%, but can be maximum 1%.

Not all cheeses are fermented. Some fermented cheeses are labeled "aged", "matured", "stagionato" or "vieilli", depending on the country and language. Fermented cheese doesn't have to be aged.

Prefer cheese which is aged at least one month over cheese which is aged less than a month (or without a specified period); in extreme cases, cheese is fermented / aged for years.

Be careful with cheese which is labeled "fresh", "fresco" or "cream". Buyers are tempted to buy it because they think that fresh cheese is healthier than old / aged cheese, but the reality is the other way around. Fresh cheese has no link to fermentation. Still, you can enjoy it occasionally.

Fermented dairy drinks

Examples of fermented dairy drinks: kefir.

The fat content should generally be around 3.5%, but can be 3...5%. The protein content should be about the same as the fat content. Sugar must be maximum 4%. Salt should be almost 0%.

The sugar content shown on the label is from before the fermentation started. If a fermented dairy drink gets more sour as time passes, it means that the fermentation continues and the sugar content decreases. This extra sourness is an indication that it's better to consume fermented dairy drinks which are one or two weeks old rather than freshly made ones; they usually have a shelf life of about 30 days.

Fermented dairy drinks must be sold in solid glass or plastic bottles, with a solid sealed cap, in order to withstand the pressure of the fermentation gas.

Fermented dairy drinks must release gas (= fizz) when the cap is unsealed, in order to prove that the fermentation did work at some point. If the fermentation bacteria is still alive, more gas will be released when the (half empty) bottle is opened in subsequent days. Yogurts which are sold in a cup will likely not fizz when unsealed, which means that they either haven't been through fermentation, or the fermentation bacteria isn't alive anymore (so the yogurt isn't useful for the body).

Prefer kefir over yogurt because kefir has, traditionally, a wider diversity of beneficial bacteria.

Fermented sour cream

The fat content should be 15...20% fat. Sugar must be maximum 4% sugar, but some products have as low as 2.5% sugar. Salt should be almost 0%.

Fermented sour cream must be labeled to contain "lactic cultures" or "lactic acid starter (cultures)".

Fermented sour cream must release a bit of gas (= fizz) when the cap is unsealed, in order to prove that the fermentation did work at some point.

Fermented sour cream should be fine to be consumed occasionally.

Falsehoods about dairy

Dairy is inflammatory

People who are allergic to lactose, casein or histamines should not eat dairy. Many cows produce an inflammatory protein called A1 beta-casein, while goats and sheep don't.

You may have heard some statistics claiming that 70% of people have some form of lactose intolerance.

Oddly enough, the people who make this claim have to justify why Europeans don't seem to have this problem, so they claim that Europeans are an exception.

But here's an important question: where do most North Americans come from? Europe. So, unless these people start claiming that genetics can change to this level in a few centuries, despite continued immigration during that time, the above statistic makes no sense.

If pizza makes you bloated, it's more likely that it's because of the flour / gluten / wheat than because of the cheese. Carbohydrates, especially the refined ones (like flour) cause gas and bloating.

Many dairy products have stabilizers (like xanthan gum, carageenan, guar gum, carob bean gum), which, at the very least, may cause gas and have a laxative effect.

Analysis of studies shows that dairy products, especially fermented ones (and even more, the moulded cheeses), are associated with a neutral or beneficial effect on health. Milk and butter appear to be exceptions.

It's possible that the dairy products made in certain countries are generally inflammatory, but that's not because of dairy as a category of food, but because of the way the animals which produce the milk are raised (= in an accelerated manner), and how the dairy products are processed (= not traditionally, but ultra processed with various additives, preservatives, thickeners, emulsifiers, stabilizers, sweeteners).

In the USA cows are raised even 3 times faster than in Italy. If a child were to reach adulthood (18 years old) in just 6 years, you would surely think that such a child can't be healthy. Do you expect the milk of such cows to be healthy?

Before you blame an entire food category for health problems, you should start asking how that food is being made.

Pasteurized dairy is a dead food

Pasteurization is the process of heating raw milk in order to destroy the bacteria which is dangerous for people. However, pasteurization also destroys the bacteria which is good for people, bacteria which can add to the diversity of the intestinal microbiota.

There are several types of pasteurization. The higher the pasteurization temperature is, the more bacteria is destroyed.

In fermented dairy products (like cheese and kefir), lactic acid starter (cultures) are added after the milk is pasteurized in order to start the fermentation process.

Analysis of studies shows that dairy products, especially fermented ones (and even more, the moulded cheeses), are associated with a neutral or beneficial effect on health. Milk and butter appear to be exceptions.

Since these studies don't and can't (normally) analyze the food to know whether the dairy has live bacteria, and because commercial products are varied, it means that fermented dairy products are healthy regardless of the bacteria from raw milk being alive or not, and regardless of the fermentation bacteria being alive or not.

Bacteria which is good for human health isn't a nutrient and isn't required in a healthy diet, so it's presence in or absence from food is irrelevant. If your own intestinal microbiota is sick, ingesting more bacteria isn't going to help so long as the cause of the sickness isn't eliminated, and may in fact amplify the microbiota imbalance.

Dairy has a lot of unhealthy glutamate

This claim seems to be a new scheme for promoting a plant-based diet, since meat and dairy are bundled in the same claim.

Looking at the data, we can see the aminoacids from various foods, and there we can see how much "glutamic acid" is in each food:

  • Chicken breast - 4645 mg

  • Wild salmon - 2962 mg

  • Farmed salmon - 3299 mg

  • Cheddar cheese - 4735 mg

  • Milk - 708 mg

  • Eggs - 1378 mg

  • Rice - 524 mg

  • Red kidney beans - 1323 mg

  • Chickpeas - 1550 mg

  • Lentils - 1399 mg

  • Hemp seeds - 6269 mg

From this, we can see that beans do indeed have an amount of glutamic acid which is lower than that of meat and cheese. But this is the wrong parameter to look at.

What you should look at is the total amount of food you eat. This is because the listed values are per 100 g / 3.5 oz of food.

How much you should eat depends on what's the purpose of that food. The main reasons for eating food are to get all the necessary calories and proteins (especially the essential aminoacids).

To get the essential aminoacids, the following amount of food is required: chicken breast or hemp seeds - 100 g / 3.5 oz, cheese - 150 g / 5.3 oz, eggs - 300 g (10.6 oz), milk - 900 g (31.7 oz), rice - 1'100 g (38.8 oz), beans (red kidney beans, chickpeas and lentils) - 400...600 g (14.1...21.1 oz, the absorption rate of proteins from vegetables is about 80%).

So, the amount of glutamic acid from chicken breast and hemp seeds doesn't have to be multiplied, from cheese has to be multiplied with 1.5, from eggs has to be multiplied with 3, from milk has to be multiplied with 9, from rice has to be multiplied with 11, from beans has to be multiplied with 4...6.

This puts the amount of glutamic acid ingested from beans above meat and slightly above eggs and cheese. So, even if you believe that this isolated parameter is unhealthy, cheese is not worse than vegetables. In fact, chicken breast would be a better choice.


Nuts are heavy on the digestive system and require a healthy intestinal microbiota to digest them properly; this is why many people exhibit intolerance and even allergy to nuts. Harder nuts seem to be heavier than softer nuts.

The satiation per calorie of nuts is low, so it's easy to overeat them, although even so they seem to add at most a few percentages to the weight. Personally, I can eat 300 g (10.6 oz) of (lightly salted) peanuts in under 2 hours, which have almost all the calories that the average person needs in a day.

If you eat nuts daily, limit them to one or two handfuls per day. A handful is 50 g (1.8 oz) for the average man. If nuts feel heavy on your digestive system, stop eating them.

Nuts have high levels of oxalate, so you should limit them severely if you have kidney problems. If you don't have kidney problems, the total oxalate content should be under 300 mg per day. Oxalate content (per 100 g / 3.5 oz): macadamia (42 mg), pistachio (49...56 mg), pecans (64...163 mg), walnuts (74...110 mg), peanuts (147 mg), hazelnuts (212...272 mg), cashews (225...262 mg), almonds (383...539 mg), Brazil nuts (492 mg).

Prefer nuts without peel / skin (= blanched) because the peel is unneeded fiber that makes the nuts taste bitter, create thirst, may create microcuts on the tongue (especially the peel of almonds), and may create gas.

Prefer nuts that are either baked or roasted without oil. Raw nuts should generally be fine if they are packaged. Unpackaged raw nuts may develop mold, so they must be baked / roasted at home.

Avoid nuts that have a lot of salt on them, since too much salt isn't healthy and creates microcuts on the tongue and lips.

If stored for a long period of time, nuts should be stored in a cool place, preferably in a refrigerator, in airtight containers.

Almonds contain a substance called amygdalin that is toxic in a large amount; this is present in a massive amount in bitter almonds. For sweet / non-bitter almonds, the risky dose for the average adult is 500 g (17.5 oz) per day, but if you eat them daily, you want to stay as far as possible from this general limit.


Some studies show that cacao is good for health, despite its very high amount of saturated fat. Cacao contains polyphenols which show anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic (= reduces arterial plaque) activity in the body.

Pure cacao contains theobromine, magnesium and tryptophan, and reduces blood pressure. Pure cacao contains no sugar (under 1%).

If you want to eat chocolate for its health benefits, look for chocolate which:

  • Is specialty chocolate, not commercial chocolate. Commercial chocolate lacks most of the health benefits of cacao because the cacao is ultra processed. The price of specialty chocolate is much higher than that of commercial chocolate.

  • Specifies the source country of the cacao.

  • Contains 75...85% cacao and 25...15% sugar. Such chocolate is satiating, but not necessarily satisfying (because it's more bitter than chocolate with a lot of sugar). If the cacao content is higher, the chocolate is quite bitter and most people don't like it, which means that the health benefits of the cacao don't justify the taste and price, especially since the health benefits may very well be achieved in other ways.

  • Is brittle (and likely breaks in irregular shapes), has a foamy finish (= the last taste in the mouth is of thick cacao foam, as if you were drinking cacao, whereas the last taste of commercial chocolate is creamy, as if you were eating cacao cream), is bitter (compared to chocolate with a lot of sugar), and doesn't leave behind a thick and sweet saliva (whereas commercial chocolate, or too much sugar, does). If the chocolate is not like this, it means that the cacao was likely ultra processed or the chocolate has too much sugar.

  • Contains only: cacao (beans, butter, powder) and sugar. Optional components: allulose instead of sugar, sunflower lecithin. Any extra ingredient, like vanilla, shows that the cacao was ultra processed, so it lacks its healthy properties. The natural flavor of high quality cacao is surprisingly good; ultra processed cacao lacks flavor, so vanilla is used to cover that absence.

To be used in chocolate, cacao has to be processed either with natural methods or with dutching (/ alkalized / European style). Dutching means that the cacao is ultra processed:

  • Dutching is used because it makes the chocolate less bitter, so commercial chocolate uses this type of processing.

  • Dutching destroys most (even 90%) of cacao's healthy components. While light dutching may maintain enough healthy components because pure cacao is very high in them, there is still the question of whether there are enough healthy components left to compensate the negative effects of the sugar, and of the cadmium and lead present in cacao.

  • Dutching reduces the amount of caffeine to about a third of what pure cacao has.

To get the healthy benefits of cacao, 15 g (0.5 oz) of chocolate as described above is enough; this makes the price per portion acceptable. Alternatively, you can mix 1 tablespoon of cacao powder in your daily food (like a smoothie); however, pure cacao is very bitter.

If you eat any other type of chocolate, eat it for its taste, don't expect it to improve your health.

Heavy metals and oxalate

Cacao contains contaminants, like heavy metals, specifically cadmium and lead. Contaminants are very slow to eliminate from the body. In some cases it takes decades for the level of contamination to be reduced to half, and in the meantime the contaminants have negative effects in the body.

The reality is that the entire environment is contaminated with various elements that are toxic for human life.

Tea (black and green) and coffee also contain contaminants, so you're not any better by avoiding only cacao. Unfortunately, these plants grow in exotic areas, in countries where such contamination is not a priority.

It doesn't matter if the cacao, tea and coffee are organic or not because the contaminants come from the soil, water and air, not (necessarily) from pesticides.

It's important to note that the total amount of ingested contaminants matters, not their mere presence, so the more cacao, tea and coffee you eat and drink, the more contaminants you ingest.

Children should not be exposed to lead at all.

A person's consumption of chocolate with at least 80% cacao should be maximum 30 grams (1 oz) per day. To benefit from the healthy properties of cacao you need less chocolate than this.

Chocolate with less cacao contains proportionally less contaminants.

See a list of contaminants in chocolate here.

For coffee, you can see these studies: Specialty coffee beans and Instant coffee drinks.

Cacao powder has a very high level of oxalate, 623...952 mg (per 100 g / 3.5 oz of powder), so you should limit it severely if you have kidney problems. If you don't have kidney problems, the total oxalate content should be under 300 mg per day.

Olive oil

Olive oil must be labeled "extra virgin" and "cold extracted" (or "cold pressed").

Olive oil should be made / packaged from olives / oil made from a single country, preferably even a single area from a country.

Olive oil should have the production date on the bottle, and should be consumed within one year from that date; the expiration date from the label is not important. Commercial olive oil only shows the expiration date.

Olive oil must be stored in dark-colored glass (or steel) bottles.

Olive oil must be stored in a kitchen cabinet, away from heat and sunlight.

Olive oil must not be stored in the refrigerator.

Olive oil is naturally bitter / tangy and creates a slightly burning sensation in the throat (when drank plain).

Olive oil has a lot of calories, about 910 kilocalories per 100 ml, so 1 tablespoon (about 15 ml) has about 140 kilocalories.

Olive oil contains mostly monounsaturated fats.


A possible replacement for table sugar is allulose, a sweetener that is usually made from corn (but can be made from other plants as well).

Allulose is less sweet than sugar.

Allulose doesn't increase blood sugar or insulin.

Allulose has about 10 times fewer calories than sugar (for the same amount, to keep recipes unchanged).

The amount of consumed allulose should be limited to 0.5 grams per kilogram (0.23 grams per pound) of body weight, per day; above this, it can upset the stomach.

Allulose is much more expensive than sugar.


Avoid bottled water because it can't be both of high quality and widely available.

If your city's water supply is good to drink, put it through a basic water filtration system (which reduces impurities and chlorine, like a Brita jug) and drink that water rather than bottled water.

If you need cleaner water, you can either filter it again through the filtration system (have two systems available), or boil it.

Don't cover the water while it's boiling, so that whatever chemicals can evaporate, do evaporate. Let the water cool before drinking.

Don't filter hot water because it would destroy the filter.

Mercury in fish

Generally, the smaller the fish is, the less mercury it contains.

Fish which is low in mercury (starting with the lowest): sardine, salmon, trout (not saltwater), herring, mackerel (not king), cod, light or skipjack tuna.

It's recommended to limit fish to maximum 400 g (14.1 oz) per week. Large fish, like tuna, should be limited more. Small fish, like sardines and herring, can be up to 200 g (7.1 oz) per day.

This research indicates the maximum amount of fish that can be eaten by pregnant mothers daily, amount below which the fish has a beneficial or neutral effect in their children (these are the more restrictive values).

Here is a study about the advantages and disadvantages of wild and farmed salmon, which includes data about mercury and other chemicals.


A high oxalate content in food can cause kidney crystals and stones, and other health problems. Calcium neutralizes oxalate; the recommended dose is 1'000...1'200 mg per day; dairy is a good source.

The average adult who has kidney problems should limit the oxalate intake to 50 mg / day. The limit isn't clear for people who don't have kidney problems, but there are indications which show that sickness appears at 300 mg / day.

Meat and dairy contain virtually no oxalate. Cacao powder and nuts have very high levels of oxalate.

Oxalate content in food: Nutritional Management of Kidney Stones, Wake Health, Oxalate in nuts, UCI Kidney Stone Center.

Kitchenware toxicity

Colored glass (= which isn't transparent) contains various heavy metals (which are toxic). Same for colored ceramic (= which isn't beige or white).

Heavy metals (usually lead and cadmium) are also used to strengthen the glazing of ceramic kitchenware (glasses, mugs, bottles, plates). Same for crystal glass. Some manufacturers make crystal glass with titanium instead of lead. Plain transparent glass usually doesn't contain heavy metals.

The presence of heavy metals doesn't mean that they will necessarily contaminate fluids or food, but any scratch in the glass or ceramic glazing may cause these metals to leach into the fluids and food.

It's highly recommended to keep fluids only in (and drink only from) transparent glass recipients (glasses, cups, mugs, bottles, jars). Pay special attention to the rim of glasses because many manufacturers add a decorative colored line (which contains heavy metals) that your lips will touch. If you can't use transparent glass recipients, you should avoid keeping fluids in the recipients you have, for a long time. For example, don't let water sit in your drinking mug for a long time, pour water in the mug only when you drink.

It's highly recommended to keep food only in (and eat only from) beige or white ceramic, or transparent glass, recipients (plates, storage containers).

It's highly recommended to use only stainless-steel cookware (= anything which is heated).


If you follow a low fiber diet, with little vegetables or with low-fiber vegetables, your body will have little matter to eliminate, so the bowel movements will be small and possibly even more rare. This can be considered a form of constipation, but lacks any gas and bloating. This isn't a health concern, there is less matter to eliminate.

The effect may be undesirable, but if the alternative is to eat fiber and have an inflammation (in the digestive system) which is a hundred times worse, then surely you would prefer to live with this kind of constipation rather than the inflammation. So, ask yourself why you're trying to optimize your diet for more output.

If you want to eliminate more matter, eat more fiber from vegetables. For example, eat a lot of beans (like chickpeas) daily. However, if the vegetables create a lot of gas, it won't help with the constipation.

If you are constipated and you don't know why, avoid sugar (from any source, so including fruits) and, possibly, refined carbohydrates (like sugar, flour, cereals). Also, make sure that you drink enough water (listen to what your body is saying).


It's actually cheaper to get the essential nutrients from multivitamins than from food because multivitamins are made either from the actual chemicals that form the essential nutrients, or from plants that are not normally used as food and are easier to grow than food is.

However, since people have to eat, and since they can live well without having the extra amount of multivitamins, taking multivitamins may be an unnecessary cost.

Fluorescent-yellow pee indicates that some component of the multivitamins that you are taking is being eliminated by the body because either it doesn't need it, or because it can't assimilate it. Usually, multivitamins contain this component in a dose much higher than the body needs because it is known that such a high dose has no negative effect, and is likely used as a simple way to see that the body does process (though not necessarily assimilates) the multivitamins.

If you see any side effects, like itching skin or headaches (but which can even be as severe as blood loss), immediately stop taking the multivitamins. Your body is reacting to the specific recipe with which those multivitamins were made.

Some people, including some physicians, might tell you that the yellow pee is proof that you are wasting money on multivitamins, but this shows that they misunderstand and misrepresent several factors: both food and multivitamin cost money, the recommended doses of vitamins and minerals can't be obtained from food by most people, multivitamins contain larger than recommended doses because the body absorbs what it needs, but only a part of the multivitamins are absorb by the body.

There is in fact a trend of denigrating multivitamin supplementation. However, if you read such articles you can see that the people writing them, aside from trying to provoke emotions instead of explaining facts logically, imply that the people who take multivitamins do so in order to heal themselves of various diseases, a fact which is false (excluding what is told by the people who have a financial interest to say that they heal diseases).

Nutrients, vitamins and minerals don't fight diseases, but taken in appropriate doses they give the immune system the resources with which to fight the body's enemies. That's it. So, while they may help the body avoid a cold, they will not work against disease X (unless the body's immune system can fight it with the extra resources).

While multivitamins may prevent a cold, if a cold has (nearly) installed, it will continue its usual course, but the symptoms of the cold may be less severe (although the duration stays the same, even though it may seem shorter).

So, why do some people who change their diet to vegetables think that these have cured their disease? It's not because of the magic nutrients from vegetables, it's because they have stopped eating whatever foods were poisoning their bodies before the change, or because some vitamin or mineral deficiency that they had was filled.

These clarifications are not meant to be merely semantic, they are meant to limit any potential irrational enthusiasm regarding the healing potential of vegetables, multivitamins and "supernutrients".

As for the ability of various vitamins to decrease the chances of cancer, there is no evidence that they do so with a significant relevance. In fact, vitamin E taken in a daily dose of 400 IU appears to increase the risk of prostate cancer by 17% (this increase represents an extra 1% of the total male population). The most popular multivitamin supplements contain less than this dose of vitamin E.

Should multivitamins be from a natural or artificial source?

Generally, it doesn't matter because the essential nutrients are literally chemicals, not magic elements, so they can be precisely created in laboratories.

More important are the absolute amount and ratios of the components, in what amount they are assimilated by the body, and what potentially toxic chemicals do the pills contain (chemicals which are used during manufacturing).

When you decide which to take, go for the company that you trust most, and for the ones that you can afford.

Should I take breaks from taking multivitamins?

It's generally recommended to do so, for example take multivitamins for 3 months then stop for a while, and so. The main claimed reason is that the body gets used to them and therefore they become less useful.

I have not seen scientific evidence that this is necessary, or that the claimed reason is based on studies rather than mere precautions.

Vitamins and minerals are chemicals that the body uses in its normal operation, like water, air and food. When things are put in this perspective, it sounds silly to say "stop eating because the body will get used to food or to the vitamins and minerals from it". Just as well, it sounds silly to say "stop taking multivitamins because the body will get used to them".

However, it's important to note that multivitamins usually contain some elements which are in a dose far higher than the daily recommended dose.

Studies have shown that they don't present a risk on the average population, but you can never know how your body will react to them on the long term. You also can't be sure how your kidneys will react while processing (for elimination) huge amounts of those vitamins and minerals. Then again, you also can't be sure how your kidneys will react while processing the calcium (/ limestone) from the water you drink.

One way to follow precautions and still take multivitamins is to take a dose smaller than the daily recommended dose, like two thirds.

Should I eat foods with added multivitamins?

You should avoid foods (including water and milk) which are specifically marketed as having added multivitamins and minerals, because you can't control their type and amount.

There are studies which show that food fortification benefits people on the average, and people with a low income in particular. However, you can't know if you are part of that average, especially if you don't have a low income, so you can't know that you are indeed deficient with regards to those multivitamins and minerals.

Multivitamin pills can be easily controlled, especially by not taking them, but you can't avoid the food that you want to eat (and is fortified).

If you avoid fluoride water / milk / salt, brush your teeth with fluoride toothpaste.


Omega 3 supplements

Take omega 3 supplements only if you don't eat fatty wild fish (like sardine, herring, salmon) regularly.

Omega 3 fact sheet.

Omega 3 content in fish.

Study about omega 3 in canned fish.

Some fatty wild fish are rich in omega 3 (DHA and EPA). Examples (per 100 g / 3.5 oz of fish): mackerel (not king) 1'900...2'500 mg, salmon 1'000...1'800 mg, herring 1'100...1'700 mg, sardine 1'000...1'400 mg. In the spring (north hemisphere), the amount is much smaller.

Some farmed fish doesn't have omega 3 because it's fed with grains. Some farmed fish is fed omega 3 supplements. Wild fish gets its omega 3 from oceanic algae.

If you don't eat fish which is rich in omega 3, you can take omega 3 supplements. Look for supplements in the form of capsules with krill oil (phospholipid form) or fish oil (triglyceride form).

Check the label of the supplement for how much DHA and EPA is in a capsule; ignore the total content of the capsule because it contains other things as well. The combined daily dose for DHA and EPA should be 1'000...3'000 mg; for krill oil, the dose can go as low as 700 mg.

If a capsule contains less than the minimum dose, you can take several capsules per day. Take this into consideration when you're evaluating whether a specific product is worth the price.

It's unknown what the ratio of DHA to EPA should be, but the safe choice is when the lower of the two is at least half of the other one. Is generally considered that DHA is better for the brain.

Take each capsule with a meal. If the supplement is in the form of ethyl ester (check the product label), the meal has to contain fat, else the omega 3 will not be absorbed well.

The bioavailability of the omega 3 is not very different between fish and krill oil (source 1, source 2).

A high temperature makes fish oil prone to oxidation, especially after the supplement is unsealed. Manufacturers usually specify to store the supplements below 20 Celsius (68 F), so a refrigerator is likely the best place.

Omega 3 supplements are more useful for people who have a high level of triglycerides.

Omega 3 supplements may make bleeding more likely, so avoid combining with blood thinning / coagulation medication.

If you want to test your omega 3 blood level, wait at least 4 months after you start taking an omega 3 supplement.

Lutein and zeaxanthin

People who work a lot in front of a computer display can benefit from a lutein and zeaxanthin supplement.

A common daily dose is around 30 mg (total, could be 25 + 5 or 20 + 10).

Take this supplement during a meal which contains fat, else the lutein and zeaxanthin will not be absorbed well.

The marigold flower is a common source for the lutein and zeaxanthin used in supplements.

Within two weeks of taking this supplement, you should see the white of your eyes becoming extremely white, and your eyesight should feel slightly improved and more resilient.

Washing vegetables

Before you eat fruits and vegetables whose rind / peel can be removed, like oranges, wash them vigorously by hand. If you wash them with soap, the chemicals with which the food was sprayed will be easier to remove and will not be able to stick as much on your hands.

Before you eat fruits and vegetables that you can't vigorously wash by hand, and whose rind / peel can't be removed, like berries and grapes, soak them in water.

Get a bowl and pour (room-temperature) water in it, enough to contain the food without it being crowded. For example, for every 250 g (8.8 oz) of berries or grapes, you need (less than) 1 liter / quart of water.

To better clean the food:

  • Add 1 level tablespoon of baking soda for every liter / quart of water. Put the baking soda in the water, not on the food. Stir the water so that the baking soda spreads around.

  • Salt can also be used instead of the baking soda, but you would need to add 6 level tablespoons of it, which is a lot of salt and will leave a salty taste to the food.

  • Vinegar (5%) can also be used instead of the baking soda, but its effectiveness decreases the more it is diluted in water, and will leave a sour taste to the food.

  • Don't mix baking soda with vinegar because they neutralize each other.

Put the food in the bowl and let it sit in the water for 10...15 minutes.

Don't drop the food into a strainer because that would only move the dirt back, from the bottom of the bowl, over the food, and would leave all the dirt in the strainer's small holes (making it very difficult to clean).

Take the food out of the bowl, with your hands, and rinse it with fresh water. Baking soda is similar to salt, so if it's left on the food it can cause dehydration of the tissue that it touches, like lips.

Elimination diet

If you have health problems, like an inflammation of the digestive system, mental fog, or dizziness right after you eat, it's possible that you have bad bacteria in your digestive system, bacteria which produces toxins when it eats (which is usually when you eat). In such a case, you can try an elimination diet for a few weeks or months, that is, a diet which is very limited in the types of food.

If you can't quickly determine which foods cause your issues, you'll have to experiment. Start by eating just one category of food, for a few weeks. If you feel good, try to introduce other categories of food, but only one at a time in order to see which works for you, and which doesn't.

A common starting point for people who go on an elimination diet is to eat chicken breast, rice and potatoes (boiled or mashed with a bit of oil); oil should not be used during cooking.

Nuts, dairy products and eggs are some of the major allergens; "major" refers to most people who have allergies to food (who are a small part of the whole population).

You have to be ready for anything, including the bad bacteria's ability to adapt and use a different fuel, meaning that the foods that were fine for you at one time, might no longer be fine at a later time.

If vegetal foods (like vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, beans, grains) cause you a negative reaction, you can still test if you can eat very well cooked vegetables (the mushy type), since the intense cooking may destroy whatever compounds are causing you problems. For example, canned beans may cause problems, but rice and potatoes (boiled or mashed with a bit of oil) could be fine. Vegetables, even when mushy, can add variety to your diet.

Be sure to read my experience with inflammation.

Be sure to read about kitchenware toxicity.

Carnivore diet

If you eat a carnivore diet, do it only because it works for you, not because you believe that humans have evolved to be carnivores.

You may hear some arguments in favor of the idea that humans have evolved to be carnivores. At least some of them have no basis in evolution:

  • Claim: Early humans ate vegetables and fruits occasionally, only when they were in season, but now eat them all the time and this is unhealthy. Fact: Lions don't eat vegetables and fruits even when they are in season. That's because lions are actual carnivores, whereas humans adapt their diet to what's available, that is, they are omnivores.

  • Claim: The current non-carnivore diet makes cancer deaths grow constantly. Fact: Cancer deaths grow because humans live longer and longer, and older people have a much higher probability to develop cancer. Data shows that cancer deaths adjusted by age are constantly decreasing. An explanation of how this works can be found here.

  • Claim: Carnivore animals have canines, whereas herbivores don't. On top of this, chimpanzees (the animal with the closest DNA to that of humans), eat meat. Fact: Chimpanzees have huge canines compared to humans, yet their diet barely contains animals products. Data shows that chimpanzees, in the wild, eat under 6% of their calories from animal products, and under 2% from meat, so their diet is overwhelmingly plant based. Sources: savanna chimpanzee diet, wild chimpanzee welfare, Jane Goodall. However, chimpanzees do have a much bigger colon than humans, which helps them digest their high fiber diet. On the other hand, humans cook vegetables, which makes them much easier to digest.

Fiber doubts

The intestinal microbiota has to be fed the food it needs to keep you healthy, but this food can vary from person to person, depending on the specific types of bacteria from the microbiota. Bad bacteria can be stimulated by various things and by any kind of food, including by the same foods that the good bacteria eat.

The one thing that fiber does well is to slow down the absorption of various things, be they good or bad, or of good things which could have a negative effect if they were absorbed faster by the digestive system in the absence of fiber.

There are some indications that the fibrous material which remains when you squeeze the juice out of vegetables and fruits (think of oranges), so the colloquial fiber, is more protective for the digestive system than the dietary fiber which is listed on food packages. As an aside, this fiber is missing from ultra processed food.

The idea that fiber is food for the good bacteria is wide spread, but this mechanism says nothing about its relevance, that is, how much does it actually influence human lifespan and life quality.

Also, if you have digestive (or even general health) problems and you don't know which type of bacteria causes your problems, eating fiber to improve your health is a coin toss because the bad bacteria might also eat fiber. Of course, you can base your decision on how you feel after you eat fiber, but that means that you have more information to base your decision on.

If fiber were very important as food for the microbiota, why would people have to avoid fiber during elimination diets? Why would starving the microbiota be a positive thing in all elimination diets?

There is also the issue of carnivores, be they human or other animals (like lions). How is their bacteria thriving? A possible answer is that they are adapted to the carnivore diet. But that means that it's possible for bacteria to thrive on various diets, in certain conditions. Perhaps not eating fiber makes carnivores sensitive to eating vegetables and fruits. But lions don't seem to care about being unable to eat vegetables and fruits.

Personally, I am an omnivore and I like being able to eat various foods, so I don't have a reason to avoid eating vegetables, unless my digestive system rejects them.

But I'm not convinced that fiber is required for a healthy life. Note that I'm talking specifically about fiber, not about vegetables in general. I'm not convinced that we know what keeps the microbiota healthy. Maybe it's fiber, maybe it's some types of fiber, maybe it's something else that fiber happens to also affect (which means that other foods / lifestyle / things may also affect that).

My experience with inflammation showed me that other things may be far more important, specifically eliminating from the diet the foods which have a negative health effect.

The conclusion is that the nutrition advice which says "eat in this specific way" is a coin toss. Maybe it works, maybe it doesn't. Without knowing the specifics of a person's lifestyle and digestive system, such advice is just a coin toss.

Food highlights

Bell peppers: Very high in vitamin C. Green bell peppers have only about 70% of the vitamin C of the red / yellow bell peppers. The sweetness of red / yellow bell peppers can balance well salty cheese (like feta cheese).

Avocados: Have 12% unsaturated fats, considered to be healthy. Not good for people who are allergic to histamines. Must be ripe, soft under the peel; the peel should not be bright, shinny green, but should be matte and should have slight brownish spots. Taste a bit like a hard boiled egg yolk. If they aren't ripe, they taste horrible and causes digestive discomfort. Unripe avocados can be bought and kept for a few days, in the kitchen, at room temperature, to ripen, but this makes them impractical. While avocado is a fruit, it has very little sugar and should be eaten as a vegetable. Avocado is expensive.

Mushrooms: Have ergothioneine. Examples (ergothioneine in decreasing order): enoki, king oyster, pioppini, lion's mane, oyster, shiitake, maitake, beech, portobello.

Rice: Useful in elimination diets, cooked without oil, because it has virtually no fiber. Not good for people who avoid carbohydrates because cooked rice has 30% carbohydrates (raw rice has 80%, no water). Some types of rice contain a significant amount of inorganic arsenic (which is worse than the organic arsenic found in other foods), and this may be a concern for people who eat rice daily in a significant amount. Tips to reduce the amount of ingested arsenic: use white rice with a short grain, soak the rice over night in a lot of water (and drain the water), boil the rice in a lot of water (the water must still fully cover the rice after boiling, drain the water). Rinsing the rice with water doesn't remove arsenic. Arsenic exposure studies: ConsumerReports - Arsenic content in rice, Exposure from rice and water in USA, Exposure from rice in Poland, Review of rice intake.

Potatoes: Useful in elimination diets, cooked without oil. Not good for people who avoid carbohydrates because they (boiled) have 20% carbohydrates. Should be baked or mashed (with a bit of extra virgin olive oil). Boiled potatoes, without skin, are low in fiber.

Vegetable smoothie. Blend several types of vegetables. Use a (high-speed) blender with a capacity of 1...2 liters. A chopper chops the vegetables in chunks, but can't make a smooth paste. A fluid, like water and olive oil, is required, as the blender won't blend without it. When using water, the water should raise (from the bottom of the blender) to about a quarter of the vegetables height; too much water makes the smoothie watery, while too little won't blend.

Tea: Prefer green tea and chamomile tea. Warm (chamomile) tea may be relaxing enough to cause drowsiness at night, and facilitate sleep.

Negative: Personally, I find that eating a lot of corn (over 200 g / 7.1 oz per day) changes the smell to something similar to paint remover, which isn't normal.

What I eat

I am an omnivore.

I don't optimize my diet based on nutrition mechanisms, but on the effect of food over the long term.

I eat virtually no red meat because I don't like its taste. There are ways to cook it so that it tastes good, but that's because its true taste is hidden.

When I eat eggs, I eat 6 large chicken eggs (400 g / 14.1 oz), cooked sunny-side-up in extra virgin olive oil (1 or 2 tablespoons), with a soft yolk. If I add cheese, I use the type which doesn't melted (like feta).

My experience with inflammation left me intolerant (but not allergic) to nuts and dairy. It also forced me to mostly eat lean meat, rice and potatoes, in order to avoid fat. Chicken breast has 2% fat, eggs have 10% fat.

I avoid foods which produce significant gas. Fiber and refined carbohydrates (like sugar and flour), cause all the gas. I particularly avoid foods which produce bloating, contractions and writhing of the digestive system (remember the feeling of fiber or refined carbohydrates being broken down in the stomach).

I strongly dislike the taste of alcohol, so I only occasionally drink wine, and then either frizzante (7% alcohol) or demi-sweet (because sugar balances the taste of alcohol).

I never drank coffee because I strongly dislike its smell and taste.

I take omega 3 supplements, unless I eat small wild fish (like sardines, herring, mackerel).

I try to avoid having snacks (= foods that can be readily eaten, without cooking) in the house because I would eat them.

I eat breakfast and dinner.

I don't do fasting, unless it's accidental.

I go to sleep well after midnight. (Not a good thing.)

Twice a year, in the spring and autumn, usually when a slight fog appears in the air, I used to catch a cold that would last about 2 weeks. For a few years it seemed that multivitamin supplements were able to keep away the cold, but they no longer seem to help. Some solutions which seem to work are:

  • Limiting sugar, regardless of source (so including from fruits), because it creates a favorable environment in the throat for bacteria to develop, which makes it easier to catch a cold. Refined carbohydrates (like flour) seem to have a similar effect, but with a lower intensity.

  • Taking some sort of cough syrup or cough drops when the throat starts exhibiting the symptoms of a cold.

  • Drinking warm tea (green tea, chamomile) every evening, after coming home from outside. The tea may be able to wash the throat of whatever virus is causing the cold, before the virus can latch on.

I spend most of my life sitting in a chair (at the desk) or sleeping. The only physical exercise that I do is to walk a lot, fast. This means that my results are due to my diet, and in no way related to strenuous physical exercise. I have a slim body with a BMI of 20 (maximum was about 26.5). I do have around 1...2 liters of unneeded abdominal fat, but you can't see that even if you see me dressed in tight clothes.

If I eat a diet which is very low in carbohydrates (especially refined carbohydrates and sugar, even from fruits), for a significant period of time, my personal scent (skin, perspiration and output) is much improved compared to when I eat a diet which is average in carbohydrates (which produce a somewhat unpleasant sugary smell). The best scent I had, by far, was when I was eating a lot of blanched almonds (125 g / 4.4 oz per day). It was sweetish nutty / buttery. This was an experiment, don't eat this amount of almonds daily; read here details about nuts.

Highest amount of fats

The highest amount of fat I've eaten from dairy products, at lunch and dinner during a day, was about 170 g / 6 oz (from cream cheese and sour cream, that is, an entire cheesecake and some leftover sour cream, so from easily digested food). I wouldn't say that the saturated fat is the whole problem, but also the fact that it's fat which is easily absorbed by the body (the equivalent to ingesting about 185 ml / 6.3 floz of oil in a day).

By the end, my body was very much in the red zone, as I was feeling tired, slightly nauseated, the start of a headache and slightly light-headed. I went for a walk in the freezing cold and most issues went away within 10 minutes, with walking feeling fast, precise and energetic.

The body felt to be running significantly hotter than usual, and had a slight sweat, even during the night. An IR thermometer showed that the forehead temperature was as usual, at 36.7 Celsius (98 F; at temple was similar: 36.6...37.0 C).

Later that night I've measured my blood pressure and it was lower than that morning, 98 / 60 and pulse 73 (compared to 101 / 66 and pulse 60 in the morning).

It took about an hour to fall asleep because I had too much energy and a slight nausea, but sleep was as usual.

The next morning, the blood pressure was higher, and by evening it was 123 / 68 and pulse 61; the highest I had seen up to that point was 111 or 113. A few hours later, after dinner, it had dropped to 103 / 63 and pulse 90.

Two days later the blood pressure was the lowest I had ever seen, 88 / 59 (pulse somewhere near 70), about 10...15 points lower than the usual. This was probably my genetics at work, compensating. In my youth, I always had the so called astronaut blood pressure, that is, very low (which is probably why I've always liked to eat a lot of salt, to raise the blood pressure).

Food doesn't usually seem to change my blood pressure (or the delay is much higher than expected), but the quality of sleep seems to.

I did this experiment at some point during my inflammation issue, and it didn't seem to cause any inflammation (at that time).

I do such crazy experiments so you don't have to.

Low abdominal size

The biggest factor that made a difference in the reduction of abdominal size, after I've achieved a slim body, was to eliminate from my diet sugar, fruits, high-fiber vegetables and nuts.

Other carbohydrates, like pasta and rice, were also limited, but not necessarily eliminated; they do cause abdominal swelling but only temporarily.

I've replaced the calories with commercial chocolate with 85% cacao (and under 15% sugar).

Since the extra abdominal size was persistent throughout the day, it was likely caused by the (size of the) fiber from the fruits, vegetables, and nuts.

This isn't a recommendation of what to eat, it was a test to see what happens.

Proteins and muscles

One experiment I did, that may help performance athletes, was to eat a lot of proteins. I had a months-long period when I was eating 400 g (14.1 oz) of salmon (farmed), every evening; I wasn't eating anything else with it, except for some lemon juice. That's about 100 g of proteins in one meal, for an average, slim body.

After the meal, I was going for a walk and I was feeling exceptionally light and strong, with no feeling of stuff filling my stomach. My body posture felt like that of an athlete, with muscles effortlessly supporting the upper body, and with shoulders clearly wanting to spread out. Eating that much protein felt like my muscles were powering up in the half hour that I needed to eat.

At some point, when I looked in the mirror I was shocked to see that my (naked) torso looked like that of a swimmer, with the size of the upper torso and shoulders looking clearly impressive compared to before.

I tried the same experiment with only 200 g (7.1 oz) of salmon, but the effect had a much lower intensity.

Chicken and turkey breast had a similar effect, but the intensity was much lower, and the swimmer torso was gone; this was with 320 g (11.3 oz) of chicken breast, which has about the same or more proteins than 400 g of salmon. Perhaps the salmon is better because its fat provides some extra energy, or perhaps the salmon does have some extra nutrients that help.

My body doesn't look like that when I eat a similar amount of proteins from anything other than fish. I can look like that only if I breath in and hold.

If I eat carbohydrates or fats to replicate the so called "energy for the gym", my body is no way at that level of look, posture and energy, while my stomach feels full and slow.

Is this effect worth the price, for the average person? Absolutely not. But a performance athlete might benefit from it.

Getting 100 g of proteins from vegetables would cause an enormous amount of gas.

There is a study which shows that 100 g of proteins eaten in a single meal are used by the body to build muscle.

What I cook

Some examples of food that I cook.

Experience with inflammation

During my experience with the inflammation of the digestive system, the problems were caused by an imbalance in my intestinal microbiota, imbalance which was likely caused by a combination of the following factors (they likely all contributed):

  • External: Stress from surrounding noise.

  • Lifestyle: Going to sleep toward the morning rather than before midnight, sleeping for too little time, working in front of a computer screen for too long, working too much and having virtually no time to relax, listening to podcasts on headphones for about 12 hours every day. Sleep deprivation amplifies the effects of stress, creating a vicious circle.

  • Diet: Eating too many nuts (150 g / 5.3 oz per day, for about 10 years, mostly peanuts, almonds toward the end), eating increasingly more fat (bile, which is required to digest fat, neutralizes stomach acids, so too much could cause digestive alkalinization), eating too few vegetables and fruits (so little fiber), not eating lunch anymore, eating too often at a restaurant.

  • External bacteria: It's possible that I had caught a bad bacteria somewhere, but this is likely not the reason because some problems were there many years before the inflammation, although at a very low intensity, like tiredness / mental fog and occasional dizziness. Of course, it's possible that is was a bacteria which was dormant for many years.

For about 20 years, I had been going to sleep between 1 and 2 o'clock in the morning. Then, for about 2 to 3 years, I delayed going to sleep further, between 3 and 4 o'clock in the morning (and a significant number of times after 4 o'clock), which is when the health problems started. I did recognize that the problems were becoming systemic, but I wasn't expecting them to manifest as they did. Sleep duration seemed less important because the later I went to sleep, the more time I had to sleep to feel as rested, so the time of going to sleep was more important.

My diet had become increasingly more fat-based over the years. When I was young, I was avoiding to eat fat in any form, except for small amounts of butter and cheese. I was especially avoiding oil and the fat from meat. Maybe this instinct was there for a reason, maybe my body can't metabolize fat well.

The root caused led to a cascade of problems which started with the inflammation and the inability to process sugar (especially from fruits, likely due to the large amount that I was eating) and fiber, followed by the inability to process fat (any kind of fat, which explains why I first became aware of the inflammation when I started eating a lot of olive oil). These problems have in turn caused mental fog, dizziness and minute leakage.

Various foods seemed to stimulate the growth of some bad bacteria which was out of control, bacteria which was then releasing toxins whose negative effect was lasting for days.

The common foods which were causing the most problems were: nuts (by far the worst effect, but mostly without a visible connection), sugar (including from fruits, whose effect was quick; the negative effects were mostly proportional with the amount of sugar), fruits (their fiber and sugar ferments), dairy (contains bacteria which is normally healthy), fats (from any source, even extra virgin olive oil mixed with various foods), vegetables (their fiber ferments; especially those which were causing significant gas).

The foods which were causing the least problems, and were even able to reduce the mental fog, were chicken breast, rice and potatoes (boiled or mashed with a bit of oil). Nothing else worked as well, by far.

I don't like the taste of red meat so I can't say much about its effect. Occasional portions of lean red meat did seem to have a positive effect.

Eggs also had a positive effect, although their effect did vary. Up to 3 or 4 large eggs per day increased the mental clarity, but more eggs increased the mental fog.

Warm showers were almost completely eliminating the mental fog, for a short while.

Multivitamin supplements made no difference.

Moments of high stress, or sudden stress (like from environmental noise), were causing inflammation, in a much larger part of the digestive system (including the mid part), but to a lower intensity than food.

The negative effects were very insidious and misleading because they were subtle, delayed, unconnected and progressively worse over the years, so I was initially attributing them to: aging, lowering testosterone, degrading eyesight, eating too few calories, eating enough fats to enter ketosis but too much carbohydrates to allow ketosis to set in (this was a natural drift, I never intended to follow a ketogenic diet).

The negative effects were, listed in the order in which they've appeared over many years: unclear vision, cloudy eyes (seen in the mirror), tiredness, low energy and low drive to do things, mental fog, dizziness / vertigo (when rising from a crouching position, or when walking), inflammation in the digestive system (left side of the body, under the ribs, likely in the stomach), low libido. Related issues may have been: slight angina (seems caused by sugar), sleeping in tension (= body not relaxed), occasional cramps in the digestive system (almost at the exit). A rare issue was a slight acid reflux which was occurring when I was eating a lot of refined fats (like olive oil, butter), or a lot of refined carbohydrates (like bread).

Sometimes, there was minute leakage from the other end, and this was worse when the symptoms were more intense. It's possible that the leakage was, at least in part, when the worst part of the experience was long gone, an illusion resulting from a change in the output (which was very sticky) that washing couldn't handle.

I was also becoming more aggressive and dismissive of people, although this wasn't manifested externally. It may have been visible on my face because I was looking meaner in the mirror. There are indications which show that (some) criminals have an imbalance in the microbiota and / or a micronutrient deficiency.

My digestive system was otherwise functioning as expected based on what I was eating, that is, I wasn't experiencing the symptoms that are associated with, for example, SIBO. There was no acid reflux or heartburn. During that period (and for years before that), I didn't have any other medical problems or medical interventions, I wasn't on any medication, I didn't have any food poisoning (that I know of), I didn't have abdominal pain.

Mental fog wasn't clear to me as such, initially, but as tiredness, a low drive to do things, unclear vision and a desire to try to open my eyes wider by lifting the eyebrows, in an attempt to wake up. The facial muscles also changed as in a tired, mean person. I was having this kind of tiredness for years before the original inflammation occurred, and during that time there was nothing to indicate that they were connected to digestive issues.

How can anyone make a connection between mental fog and digestive issues when there are no digestive issues to be felt (because the microbiota isn't connected to the nervous system)? Without the inflammation, I would have never known that the other problems were caused by an imbalance in my intestinal microbiota. Ultimately, it became clear that the mental fog was setting in after I was eating various foods and ingredients, like sugar (even in small amounts, regardless of source, so fruits included).

Eventually, I was getting an inflammation in the digestive system when I was eating just about anything. I was having a generalized mental fog which felt like being tired, not sleeping enough, aging. The good part was that I also getting real time feedback, as at some point I could feel the mental fog increasing or decreasing as I was chewing the first bite or two of certain foods.

It seemed that some foods (like meat) somehow partially neutralized the negative effects, in the sense that the inflammation and mental fog were reduced. The proteins didn't seem to be the neutralizing factor since eggs seemed to work fine only up to 3 or 4 eggs, but more eggs were causing mental fog. Cheese also has proteins and did cause problems, but that could be because its bacteria amplifies the existing bacterial imbalance.

The really insidious part was that most foods were causing problems, and nuts, sugar and fiber were having the worst effects. Because of this, I thought that I should eat more fat. But as I was eating more and more fat, the problems were getting worse and were lasting for days after stopping from eating fat. Fat was amplifying the imbalance. I was getting more and more cornered into eating fewer and fewer foods, until I eventually had to eat mostly meat.

At some point I started to feel how, after a good sleep, I would wake up with a clear mind, but after moving around (but before eating) I could feel a slight mental fog setting in, as the microbiota was disturbed by the movement. Similarly, when I went outside for a brisk walk, with a clear mind, I could feel the mental fog setting in.

High quality sleep in combination with a restrictive diet were able to reverse the problems to some extent. Even laying horizontally in bed, reading (I read in sleeping position), seemed to reduce the inflammation, although I can't compare the efficiencies of sleep versus laying in bed because I couldn't spend the same amount of time in each state. However, it took 10...11 hours of reading and sleep (over 8 hours of sleep).

How do I know that the sleep / relaxation was beneficial rather than simply the long duration? Because when I was spending much of this time on a chair, working at the computer, the health effects were negative.

However, sleep wasn't enough, or healing was taking too long (the microbiota is expected is undergo a cycle of positive change in 3...4 months). This makes sense considering that my microbiota was already sick and food was causing problems.

I also had to follow a restrictive diet (not so restrictive considering all the experiements that I was doing). While the problems sometimes appeared to require limiting foods which are fermenting in the digestive system (FODMAP), the inflammation always appeared when I was eating fat (even pure fat like extra virgin olive oil mixed with various foods), whereas the mental fog was generalized. Also, the inflammation always appeared at the start of the digestive system, where the fermentation should be minimal, and I had no gas in the absence of fiber and carbohydrates, whereas in their presence the gas was as expected.

I had to stop eating nuts and foods which contain bacteria and stimulate the bacterial imbalance, like fermented foods, dairy, sugar, fruits (due to their sugar), chocolate (due to its sugar and because cacao is fermented), vegetables (their fiber causes gas), preserved meats (like sausages, ham), bread and pizza (because of the yeast or sour dough). I tried to eat chickpeas or green peas (400 g / 14.1 oz per day) for two months, but they didn't allow the inflammation to subside.

I also had to stop eating fats because it looked like my microbiota or mitochondria couldn't process fats or the combination of fats and carbohydrates. Switching in either direction between foods which contain only fats or only carbohydrates, at least during a day, was causing me physical and mental weakness. My energy levels were fine when I was eating only fats or only carbohydrates (aside from proteins).

The only foods left to eat were chicken breast (up to 300 g / 10.6 oz per day), rice (up to 400 g / 14.1 oz) and potatoes (boiled or mashed with a bit of oil).

A few times I had a mental clarity beyond anything I had ever experienced, like I was observing the world through a magnifying glass. It's possible that this was a normal experience when I was young, but I can't remember. This has occurred only when I was eating either extremely high fat (similar to a ketogenic diet), or extremely high carbohydrate (similar to a reverse ketogenic diet). Because fats were causing me inflammation, and later mental fog, I couldn't maintain a high fat diet.

However, neither more sleep nor diet changes were enough. The sensitivity to sugar, fats (from any source) and fiber remained, but at a lower level. I was able to eat nuts again (over 100 g / 3.5 oz per day), but they quickly created physical and mental weakness, and later inflammation and mental fog. Nectarines (more sour than sweet) were the most inflammatory food; after eating 4 average nectarines it felt like there was no more room in my stomach.

About 15 months after the original inflammation, I've switched my water drinking mug from a colored glass mug to a transparent glass mug. The mental fog almost vanished within 24 hours, while the inflammation from the digestive system almost vanished within 3 days.

I had been drinking for that mug for about 4 years. Ignoring the mug was a severe failure on my part because I had known all along about the heavy metals present in colored glass and ceramic. Also, while I did thought about my drinking water containing toxins, I didn't think that between the water (from various sources) and my body there was a mug, and water was sitting constantly in it (which can only amplify the toxin leak). Considering the color of the glass, very dark green, the most likely toxin was chromium.

After that, I ate about 80 g / 2.8 oz of commercial chocolate with 85% cacao (and under 15% sugar). This immediately triggered mental fog, physical weakness, dizziness and a slight inflammation. These negative effects could be explained by previously considered factors (like fat, histamines and oxalate), but another factor is the amount of heavy metals from such a significant amount of cacao.

Make sure to read about kitchenware toxicity.

The experimentation is ongoing because all solutions so far worked only for a while.


I had been eating about 150 grams (5.3 oz) of peanuts every day (the kind with a red peel, without eating the peel), together with oranges (1...1.3 kg / 2.2...2.9 lbs), for about 10 years, without a visible negative effect. Sometimes I was replacing the peanuts with 125 g (4.4 oz) of other types of nuts (like peeled almonds and macadamia).

At some point I had started following a high fat diet because it was easy to eat most calories from nuts (50% of calories) and butter, and no more oranges (for the last 2 years of the period). I also stopped eating lunch. I was optimizing my time. At the same time, the acids from fruits were getting through a tooth nerve, which was causing pain when I was brushing my teeth with an electrical toothbrush.

I was also trying to limit sugar as much as possible, so eliminating the (about) 100 g of sugar from the oranges seemed like a simple way to do it. While sugar has the same negative health effects, regardless of its source, fruits aren't just sugar, and their fiber matters a lot. Lack of fiber, writhing and gas in the digestive system feels amazing (and the flat abdomen looks amazing), but it's the wrong thing to optimize for. This is why it's wrong to study (nutrition) mechanisms and food components in isolation. Health is the result of all the mechanisms and (whole) foods interacting together, they can't be separated.

On top of these things, I was encouraged by my abdomen getting flatter and flatter.

Problems started to appear (long) after I've stopped eating oranges. I was also not eating vegetables regularly because most need cooking, and I was optimizing for time. Not eating oranges meant: I wasn't eating fiber (other than what's in nuts), I wasn't ingesting the acids from oranges, I was overwhelmingly getting my calories from fats and proteins (since I was eating few carbohydrates from other sources). My digestive system became sensitive to certain things.

After about two years of this diet, inflammation started to occur whenever I was eating fats or carbohydrates. In less than half an hour I was feeling some abdominal organ having no more room in my body. The inflamed organ was, likely, the stomach (the pancreas tail was also a possibility). The location was mostly on the left-front side of the body, at the level of the lower half of the ribs, and sometimes below the ribs. When the intensity wasn't at the maximum, the inflammation was occurring in slightly different places, from the middle of the body all the way to the left side (next to the arm, slightly above the elbow); it was very rarely occurring on the right side.

The first time the inflammation occurred was when I ate a lot of olive oil. I was testing with about 60 grams (2.1 oz) of high quality 80% fat organic butter, and 80 ml (2.7 floz) of high quality, organic, cold extracted, extra virgin olive oil, at breakfast and lunch, each with 100 grams of bread; this is the equivalent of about 120 grams of fat and 100 grams of carbohydrates; I've also tried only with oil. In less than half an hour I've felt the inflammation occur. In this case, the inflammation appeared immediately and disappeared after two days of not eating the oil. I've later seen that a lot of refined fat (olive oil, butter, lard, around 100 g / 3.5 oz), ingested in one meal, was causing me problems like inflammation or nausea.

Not eating for lunch, and stress were causing the same kind of inflammation, but to a lower degree.

For the foods that did cause the inflammation (some didn't), the effect appeared to be proportional with the amount of fats and carbohydrates. I couldn't clearly determine any specific element that was causing the inflammation, especially because some (unknown) elements were able to block the inflammation (when present in some foods that did contain a lot of fats and carbohydrates).

The inflammation was the first and main problem that I became aware of. A secondary problem was that when I was trying to eat a lot of fruits, even if the inflammation wasn't present, there was soon a need to eliminate them (on the other end), and the need appeared to be proportional with the amount of sugar (and maybe of water, water alone wasn't a problem). Oranges were relative fine, but nectarines were really bad, even though the weight of the nectarines (with the pit) was smaller; cantaloupe was toward the bad side; watermelon was in the middle, as I had to eat 2...3 times the weight (rind excluded) of the nectarines to have the issue.

Vegetables and fruits were causing me not just the usual gas, but (low) gas pressure which was leading to minute leakage (from the other end, which was as fun it sounds). Fruits were the worst, by far, likely due to the high amount of sugar, and their effect was visible in hours, not days, so their fiber didn't have much slowing effect.

There was one issue I had even years before, which now seems relevant: occasional cramps in the digestive system (almost at the exit). Quite painful, like leg cramps, but with no ability to press on the soles in order to stretch the muscles to force them to relax; walking would help. I was never able to pinpoint their cause.

All these problems seemed to be independent in the sense that various foods were triggering one or multiple of them, but not all of them. So, multiple mechanisms were interacting in the body, when eating each food and all foods together.

Even not eating was causing some inflammation and mental fog. Walking was also causing dizziness (perhaps the bad bacteria was disturbed by the walking).

About 5 months after the original inflammation, the problems mostly vanished. The minute leakage disappeared, and vegetables and fruits started to cause only the normal gas. However, a bit later, there was inflection point when the inflammation returned and two other problems started to occur: dizziness and mental fog. Rarely, there were also low intensity headaches.

I don't know what caused the inflection point. Maybe the bad bacteria had adapted to my new diet, or maybe I was eating too much cheese (which I started to eat because it wasn't causing any inflammation). Since cheese is a fermented food, it's possible that it started amplifying the microbiota imbalance.

Another possibility is that I was severely undercaloric because so many food categories were causing problems... and I wasn't feeling hungry because the low amount of carbohydrates and the (about) 150 g (5.3 oz) of cheese that I was eating daily was that satiating. Long before the inflammation, when I was eating nuts (150 g / 5.3 oz) and oranges (1 kg / 2.2 lbs), I was eating about 500...700 more calories per day, and my weight was only about 3...4% higher.

While the inflammation reappeared, it was only at about a third of the original intensity, and more clearly localized (perhaps because the lower intensity meant a lower diffusion of sensation). Continuing to eat vegetables and fruits made the leakage return. The only exceptions seemed to be soft vegetal foods like mashed potatoes and pasta, seemingly because they weren't causing gas. Even worse now, it seemed that sugar (regardless of source, so fruits included) and my fermented dairy breakfast were causing dizziness and mental fog immediately; other non-sugary, non-fatty foods were also causing dizziness.

More foods started to cause problems like inflammation in my digestive system. Moreover, the effects that foods had seemed to flip. For example, cheese, kefir and commercial chocolate with 85% cacao (and 12% sugar) initially had positive effects, but after about 5 months they started to cause dizziness and mental fog. I also tested chocolate with 80% cacao sweetened with erythritol, and it's effect was roughly similar with the chocolate sweetened with sugar; I couldn't test chocolate sweetened with allulose. On the other side, canned fish (in oil) and olive oil caused inflammation.

The health problems became more severe and were visible much quicker, so I was finally able to see that they were linked.

Warm showers were almost completely eliminating the mental fog, for a short while.

If the problems continued, it seemed that I had to go on the carnivore diet. Most carnivores recommend eating red meat because it has fat, whereas chicken breast doesn't. Aside from the fact that this is a very restrictive diet, I dislike the taste of red meat. Also, eating a lot of lard (with bread, instead of butter) was causing me nausea.

Sidenote: Some people recommend avoiding chicken breast, for people who have a high cholesterol, because, they say, it's high in saturated fat. According to USDA, chicken breast has 0.35 g of saturated fat per 100 g. As for its cholesterol, the cholesterol in food doesn't increase the cholesterol in blood. Besides, eggs have about 5.5 times more cholesterol, and studies show that they are fine.

Some people might think that the solution to my problems would be to eat more fiber. But, as I said above, vegetables and fruits were causing gas, and the gas pressure was causing minute leakage. That doesn't sound healthy.

Beans cause a particularly high amount of gas. It's surreal to listen to people describing problems they have from eating a lot of fiber, and other people recommending them to eat more fiber as the solution.

Some vegetables, like rice, potatoes and bell peppers didn't seem to be a problem, perhaps because they weren't causing gas (since they are low in fiber).

Pasta had only a slight negative effect. This is likely because pasta doesn't contain yeast since it's dense, and any raising ingredient would do the opposite. Also, boiling is better than baking at destroying bacteria because water transfers heat better than air, and the thinness of pasta makes it easier for heat to reach everywhere inside.

Eating varied made things worse because each food had its own effect, and all foods together produced all problems: inflammation, dizziness and mental fog. Fruits (like oranges), cause all problems, seemingly because their absolute amount of sugar is high. However, for the sugar in fruits to cause problems, it has to be more than in non-fruit sources (like chocolate). Other refined carbohydrates, like bread, seem to have an effect similar to sugar. It's interesting to note that the fiber from 0.5...1 kg / 1.1...2.2 lb of oranges wasn't able to compensate the negative effect of the sugar, and above 0.5 kg the effect was clearly negative.

It seemed that I had become intolerant (but not allergic) to nuts, sugar and dairy. These issues manifested as inflammation in the digestive system, dizziness and mental fog. The intolerance meant that I couldn't eat nuts, sweets, fruits and dairy products. Cheese was very helpful for about 5 months, and I've eaten a lot of it, but it eventually started to cause dizziness and mental fog, along with many other foods.

After about 9 months from when the initial inflammation appeared, the mental fog became persistent. Going back to the 5 month inflection point, what had happened was that I was no longer eating fruits (because sugar was causing problems), nor vegetables (because their fiber was causing gas which led to minute leakage), nor dairy and chocolate (because their effect had flipped at the inflection point). This meant that I was eating under 15 grams of carbohydrates per day, virtually no fiber, and less fat than before. My brain was, perhaps, no longer getting enough fuel from either fats or carbohydrates, or my body was unable to convert fat to glucose (in order to feed the brain). This explanation is unsatisfactory because while my brain was slow and foggy, my body was energetic, but it would make sense if the brain running at full capacity isn't a priority for the biology of a human who doesn't get enough calories (without feeling hungry).

I then started to eat more and more bell peppers and avocados, because their low fiber was causing little gas. Once I had ramped-up these vegetables daily, and also started to eat oranges and other fruits, the mental fog had reduced in less than a week.

For example, after a dinner consisting of 6 eggs, an avocado and (shimeji) mushrooms, the mental clarity became extreme. However, right after that, after eating oranges (about 90 g of sugar), the inflammation, some mental fog and a bit of dizziness returned.

About two days later, I had no lunch and, in the evening, I was feeling some mental fog, so I ate 80 g / 2.8 oz of chocolate with 85% cacao (12% sugar). It initially reduced the mental fog, then created a bit of dizziness (within 30 minutes) which disappeared quickly, then the mental fog disappeared (a few hours later). The next day I tried chocolate with 75% cacao (22% sugar), but it wasn't even able to reduce the mental fog. I've tried the same with nuts, and it worked similarly, with a lower intensity, but later caused more mental fog. This was meant to show me that my brain would benefit if I ate some food between breakfast and dinner, even though the body was energetic anyway.

In the evening, I ate 150 g / 5.3 oz of cheese (with 200 g / 7.1 oz of small canned fish, 2 large avocados and 200 g of bell peppers), which first created slight waves of mental fog, and then a light but persistent state between dizziness and mental fog, and some slight abdominal discomfort, and finally inflammation. This was meant to show how complex the interaction of multiple nutrition mechanisms is in the body, in real time, and how fiber isn't be able to compensate negative effects, at least not in the short term, just like the fiber from oranges wasn't able to compensate the effect of sugar.

By this point, eating almost anything was producing mental fog.

After another week of eating up to 3 avocados per day, plus bell peppers, it was fine to eat in one meal, though with a slight digestive discomfort, oranges (1 kg / 2.2 lbs), nuts (mixed, up to 200 g / 7.1 oz), and crackers (100 g / 3.5 oz, 20% fiber, made from various seeds, like flax seeds). Some inflammation was still present after eating nuts or oranges. I wasn't eating nuts and oranges regularly at the time.

While eating eggs, I could feel the mental fog clearing by the middle of the meal, then I could feel the mental fog setting in again.

As time went by, I had started to have longer and longer periods of almost complete mental clarity, especially a few hours after a meal (as meals were creating more or less mental fog).

Then, I started eating again large amounts of nuts, around 100...200 g / 3.5...7.1 oz per day. In about a week, the inflammation reappeared, and so did the leakage and mental fog. So, large amounts of nuts are causing me digestive problems. Even eating 50 g of nuts causes me a slight digestive discomfort, but, oddly, not in the area which gets inflamed, but throughout the center, discomfort which mostly disappears within 15 minutes (which I remember was there years before, but which I ignored since it was short-lived).

Eventually, I had to eliminate from my diet the following: nuts, sugar (including from fruits), dairy, vegetables which were causing significant gas.

However, the problems didn't disappear. Maybe the bad bacteria had adapted again to my diet, clinging to the smallest amount of sugar. Perhaps it even started to eat fiber from the vegetables that I was eating. After all, why wouldn't the bad bacteria also eat fiber, just like the good bacteria?

I was thinking how I could go back to what I was eating before the inflammation, mainly the oranges. However, since sugar was a problem (and eating oranges caused some mental clarity initially, but mental fog later), I though that I should try another important component from oranges: the acids. It seemed a real possibility that, for whatever reason, my digestive system wasn't acidic enough.

Almost one year after the initial inflammation appeared, I've found out that eating pickles in vinegar made the mental fog disappear quickly, and virtually completely for many hours. As soon as I ate a few pickles, the bad bacteria didn't like it and immediately caused mental fog and a slight headache. I ate more, and while nothing more happened then, I had a more intense headache during the night, and some in the morning. I also ate pickles during the breakfast, and until dinner there was virtually no mental fog. In total, during dinner and breakfast, I ate 360 g / 12.7 of (solid mass) pickled cucumbers. That's a lot of vinegar.

After just a few days of the "pickle diet" I was able to eat 1 kg / 2.2 lbs of oranges daily. I had also started eating unsalted nuts and noticed that the sweetness of the nuts produced a desire to eat pickles afterwards. I think salty nuts numb this desire, which may be a problem.

After a few days of eating nuts (mixed, no peanuts), they started to feel heavy on my digestive system and slowly caused mental fog, a slight temperature, dizziness, a slight feeling of my head being stretched and then compressed, nausea, and a slight inflammation in the digestive system. Peanuts (baked, salted) did cause leakage within a few hours.

The most important things were that the leakage stopped, the massive mental fog turned into a light mental fog (with some hour-long periods of extreme clarity), and the inflammation generally vanished.

Over the course of two weeks it seemed that the acid didn't solve the problem but forced the bacteria to move downward instead of upward, because the mental fog returned, and I started getting bloated and I was retaining a lot of water.

I then tried the last remaining unchanged part of my diet: I reduced the fat as much as possible, and switched to carbohydrates. The inflammation started to disappear, and while the experiment is ongoing, fat seems to be a main cause of the inflammation and of the cascade of problems.

You can read about the conclusion above.

Possible causes

These were various possibilities that I was thinking about during my investigation. I will leave them here.

One possible cause of the inflammation is that I've developed some sort of reaction to nuts in general. Not an allergy, but a reaction, since I can still eat them occasionally, in a small amount, without serious problems.

Another possible cause of the inflammation is an excess of oxalate from nuts. This doesn't explain why nuts did cause the problem, but not oranges (the 1 kg / 2.2 lbs I was eating at times is high in oxalate). It also doesn't explain why it happened with olive oil. Olives contain a lot of oxalate, but olive oil appears to not contain any (I couldn't find something definitive).

  • One source said that "excessive fats may cause elevated oxalates if the fatty acids are poorly absorbed because of bile salt deficiency" and "high amounts of the omega 6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid, are associated with increased oxalate problems". Omega 6 is present in nuts. This source also said that vitamin C is converted to oxalate only for very large doses (4 g / day), which wasn't my case.

  • Another source said "showed acute oxalate nephropathy linked to increased oxalate intake in the form of peanuts (> 130 g/day)". However, my kidneys didn't appear to be affected in any way.

Another possible cause of the inflammation is a vitamin C deficiency. Vitamin C is required for the body to use fats for energy, through the production of carnitine, and since my diet was extremely restricted and I was eating a lot of fats (mostly from nuts) and no more oranges (which contain vitamin C), this could have been the cause. However, I had inflammation even in the days when I ate bell peppers and oranges, which have a high amount of vitamin C.

Another possible cause of the inflammation is the farmed salmon that I was eating at the restaurant, 400...600 g (14.1...21.2 oz) per week, for over 2 years. I knew for a long time that something was... fishy. Considering all the factors (especially the taste), the quality of the fish had to be low (which means that it may have had traces of antibiotics). As more time was passing, I was feeling that my digestive system was becoming more and more sensitive, but since this wasn't synchronized with eating the fish, I've ignored the possible link.

The only issue I was having with the fish was a small sensation of the fish moving in the abdomen for a short while (something that wasn't happening with any other food, at least not immediately), but I was thinking it may be from the lemon juice I was eating with the fish.

This is how my attention was directed toward the nuts. But it's possible that the fish was the problem, although a delayed problem, and the nuts only amplified it.

The inflammation started to decrease in intensity only after I've stopped eating nuts for several weeks and added more diversity in my food (although the diversity could have been a coincidence). Later, I've done further tests with macadamia nuts, which have caused a mild nausea (likely due to the very high percentage of fat), and pistachio, which have caused gas.

Even two months after I've stopped eating nuts, I was still having inflammation (although with a significantly lower intensity than before), and some sort of slight angina and slight tingling on the left side of the heart.

I've then stopped eating farmed fish (I was barely eating canned fish anyway), and the issues decreased a lot in less than a week. My body also appeared to get much better at processing fruits.

I've later also stopped drinking bottled water and the issues have decreased further in about a week. Maybe it was a coincidence, but I have no reason to go back.

Almost 5 months after the major inflammation started, the issues seem to have disappeared in general. The minute leakage disappeared, and vegetables and fruits started to cause only the normal gas.

A few weeks later, after eating a handful of nuts for several days, the inflammation reappeared, but only at about a third of the original intensity, and more clearly localized (perhaps because the lower intensity meant a lower diffusion of sensation). Continuing to eat vegetables and fruits made leakage return. The only exceptions seemed to be soft vegetal foods like mashed potatoes and pasta, seemingly because they weren't causing gas. Even worse now, it seemed that eating my fermented dairy breakfast wasn't helping anymore and was causing me dizziness immediately (non-fatty foods also caused dizziness).

But this time I did one thing differently: I've considered that the food wasn't necessarily the problem, but the restaurant where I was eating almost every evening, so I've stopped going there. In about three days, the inflammation subsided. What's more, my mental fog and tiredness started to clear. This was something that I was previously attributing to my insane sleep-work schedule, so I didn't think it could be from something else. The dizziness after the breakfast also vanished.

In hindsight, it took months of going to that restaurant for the mental fog to occur, and about a year for the inflammation to occur. Understanding the problem was made more difficult by the fact that not going to the restaurant took several days to show a positive effect.

Eating food fried in oil, at any restaurant, seems to cause the inflammation, but this doesn't mean that it's the actual cause, it could be just an irritant. I'm saying this because even when I wasn't eating foods cooked in oil for several days, the inflammation was still there, so either the oil isn't the issue, or there is a very long delay in healing from its effects.

I've retested eating nuts several times (as low as 10 g of walnuts, peanuts, hazelnuts and almonds), and I've had an unpleasant feeling in my digestive system, including a feeling of slowness of the food moving through. The last tests were very clear, as about 12 hours after eating the nuts, the minute leakage reappeared. The negative effects last a few days. So, I won't be eating nuts anymore. It's clear that even small amounts cause me problems. Interestingly, the desire that I was previously feeling to eat them, disappeared.

I've then returned to that restaurant and the negative effects showed up within two days, so I've stopped going there completely. I've then started eating at a different restaurant and the negative effects returned, to a more limited extent, so I've completely stopped eating at restaurants. This time the inflammation did subside, but much slower, it took several weeks.

The inflammation and dizziness are now gone. An exception is when I eat sugar, regardless of its source, which causes inflammation and dizziness, even in amounts smaller than 20 g per day, although the intensity is low. This was a very difficult thing to track because the amount is so small that it can come from anything, including the kefir that I was eating (which I've stopped in order to test the effect of its absence, but that didn't improve much).

The problems then reappeared and the mental fog became generalized.

You can read the conclusion above.

Effect of foods

Foods that have caused (at least some) inflammation, initially:

  • Nuts (peanuts, almonds, macadamia).

  • Fruits, chocolate with 50% sugar.

  • Pizza, rice (cooked in a restaurant with a lot of oil).

  • Sardine and tuna canned in olive oil (oil of unknown quality, eaten without the oil).

  • Eggs (unsure whether from free-range or pasture-raised chickens).

Foods that have caused little to no inflammation, initially:

  • Meat: chicken and turkey breast, salmon (farmed, not high quality).

  • Dairy products: multiple types of cheese (including fermented and unfermented, yellow and white), kefir, goat milk. I was eating cheese and kefir daily, in a large amount, in the morning.

  • Commercial chocolate with 85% cacao (and under 15% sugar) caused little to no inflammation, which was surprising since it contains a lot of fats and carbohydrates; also, cacao powder is very high in oxalate. The chocolate was 100 grams (3.5 oz), repeated in several days. There was one exception when I ate (a new type of) cheese and chocolate, partly combined, after which a serious inflammation occurred; in all other cases I was eating cheese in the morning and chocolate at night.

  • Home made pike fish eggs, very thick spread on white bread, caused no inflammation and were able to even eliminate the inflammation, but didn't affect the existing mental fog. This was surprising since fish eggs have a lot of fats and carbohydrates. The bread was 100 grams (4 slices). The fish eggs were about 160 g (5.6 oz). Since fish eggs aren't a regular food, I can't say that their effect would scale with usage. I haven't tried this experiment with other types of fish eggs, to see whether the type or quality matters. It's possible that the positive effect was the result of the viscous structure of the fish eggs creating a mesh over the bacteria, slowing its activity. The following don't seem to be the cause of the effect:

    • Pike and (farmed) salmon meat: Didn't didn't reduce my health problems.

    • Omega 3: Omega 3 supplements didn't reduce my health problems; daily dose: 2'200 mg of DHA and EPA, from fish, triglyceride form, no astaxanthin on label. Mackerel (canned in canola oil, 300 g / 10.6 oz), despite its colossal content of DHA and EPA (21'000 mg total omega 3), didn't reduce my health problems; it's effect varied.

    • Astaxanthin: I've experimented with astaxanthin (an antioxidant found in marine life), starting from the assumption that pike fish eggs contain a lot of it, although I couldn't find any specific data. Looking at the amount found in salmon, astaxanthin shouldn't have an effect because eating (farmed) salmon didn't reduce my health problems. Still, I've experimented with 10...20 mg per day. The supplement did seem to blunt my problems, although nowhere the same level as fish eggs, but in the end it didn't seem to be beneficial. Any positive effect could have been a coincidence because my digestive system was already healing for about 2 months.

    • Vitamins and minerals (from fish eggs): Multivitamin supplements didn't reduce my health problems. One possible exception is iron, which the multivitamins didn't contain, so I didn't test it.

    • Salt and onions: When eaten with other foods, didn't reduce my health problems.

  • Extra virgin olive oil, limited to 2 tablespoons, with cheese. This oil was from a commercial brand that claims to not blend the oil. This was tested later, so maybe the long term cause of the inflammation was gone. It was also less oil than in the original test which caused inflammation. It's also possible that the olive oil was some sort of coincidence several times, or was a trigger for something else.

  • Kidney beans (canned).

Foods which had a mixed effect:

  • Dried dates (100 g / 3.5 oz, 60% sugar) reversed half of the mental fog caused by fresh oranges (500 g / 17.6, 9% sugar), but created dizziness. However, eating them when there was little mental fog, they created some mental fog, but much less than what the oranges created. I tried these about 8 months after the original inflammation.


Should I count the calories that I eat?

No, because you have no idea how many calories your body needs.

However, you should compare how many calories are in the types and amounts of foods that you eat, so that you can choose the ones with fewer calories.

How fast should I be losing weight?

If you can lose at most 1 kilogram (= 2 pounds) per month, that's great, but if you want to lose your extra weight faster than you can increase this limit several times without negatively affecting your health.

If you lose a lot of weight, especially if it happens fast, your body will not lose fat everywhere just as much or just as fast, and some fat will remain in certain areas, like on the abdomen, making the skin look floppy.

While losing weight, fat isn't the only thing that you will be losing, but muscles as well. Read this for details.

What about fried foods?

Beware of fried foods!

Fried oil can be toxic. See here when oils become toxic.

Cooking in oil can bring you a large amount of unnecessary fats.

Boiled potatoes have 20% carbohydrates and have a small amount of calories (per 100 grams). However, home made french fries have 2 times the number of calories because they absorb the frying oil. The ones fried at fast foods restaurants have 4 times the number of calories (I don't know why, but you can check this at the USDA food list).

What if I crave sweets?

Try fruits. If you don't know what to start with, try oranges first.

If you were to abstain from eating something sweet, you would increase the probability that you would simply drop your new eating habits and start eating without limits again.

Should I eat a lot of food fewer times a day, or little food more times a day?

You should eat satiating food, when you feel the need. You have to find your own balance depending on how you feel.

Refined carbohydrates reduce satiation, so people (desire to) eat much more calories than they need, which makes it very difficult for people to stop eating only the calories they need.

It's better to eat a small treat every day than a lot of them once a week.

I feel the need to eat a lot as if my body is looking for a specific type of food, but I don't know which. Why is this?

Leaving aside any possible health problems that you may have and the medical tests that you could take, one possible cause is that your body is low on some essential nutrients, and perhaps most importantly, low on water.

Many people delay drinking water when their bodies request it, and when they get used to it and feel no more thirst, they think that they don't need water so much. However, the body simply starts getting water from food, and asks for a lot of food in order to get the needed water.

If at the same time you feel that you are low on energy, you should reduce the ultra processed food as much as possible, and eat proteins.

If you are limiting the number of calories for fear that you may gain weight, you could eat more and at the same time do some physical exercise in order to burn the extra energy.

Should I avoid eating meat?

There is no scientific reason for the average person to avoid eating meat. To the contrary, eating meat is associated with increased life expectancy.

Avoiding to eat meat will make it more difficult for you to get the vitamins and essential aminoacids needed by the human body, will most likely push you to eat things that should never be part of a diet (like refined carbohydrates and refined fats), and will produce massive amounts of gas (from the fiber and carbohydrates of the vegetables and fruits). Avoiding to eat eggs and dairy makes it even more difficult.

Be aware that "proteins" is a generic word which encompasses any combination of aminoacids, but the body needs a specific combination of aminoacids which are essential for it, and meat provides a much better balance, among the essential aminoacids, than vegetables do. It's more difficult to get the essential aminoacids from vegetables than from meat.

If you want to avoid eating meat, you need a source of balanced proteins (with aminoacids in the ratio that people need).

Edible hemp is a great vegetal source of proteins whose essential aminoacids rival meat in terms of balance, and lacks the famous hallucinogenic component. Red kidney beans, chickpeas and lentils are good enough vegetal sources of proteins; if canned, the label has to show close to 9% proteins. See this for the essential aminoacids balance.

"Ultra processed meat" (for example, burgers) is in fact not meat because it may contain (for example) 30% meat (where the rest is anything except meat).

Frequent eating of ultra processed meat has been linked to some health problems.

Should I avoid eating carbohydrates?

The dominance of refined carbohydrates (like sugar, flour, cereals) causes serious health problems.

Also important is what type of food you eat and how it's cooked, because the carbohydrates from raw vegetables and fruits are absorbed much more slowly by the body.

Carbohydrate content examples: oranges 12% (9% sugar), bananas 22%, nuts 10...30% (40...50% fats, 20% proteins), cooked pasta 30% (raw pasta 75%, no water), cooked rice 30% (raw rice 80%, no water), boiled potatoes 20%, bread 50% (10% proteins), and sugar 100%.

Wheat bread has 50% carbohydrates, so 100 grams (3.5 oz) of bread contain 50 grams (1.8 oz) of carbohydrates, which has 200 kilocalories, which makes 10% from the 2'000 kilocalories daily dose recommended for an average adult.

Does eating carbohydrates cause tooth decay?

Yes, eating (refined) carbohydrates (especially sugar), creates an acidic and sticky environment in the mouth which dramatically increases the risk of teeth deterioration (like cavities), and an unpleasant breath smell (which is common since most people eat refined carbohydrates).

A high risk is indicated by the presence of the biofilm, which is a soft and white substance between the gums and teeth, which mostly forms when eating (refined) carbohydrates.

The frequency of sugar ingestion, not the amount, is the most important factor of tooth decay. When sugar is eaten, the formed acids soften the tooth enamel and leave it vulnerable for about half an hour. Eating more sugar doesn't increase this time, but eating sugar more often leaves the enamel vulnerable for longer, so it's better to eat sweets once a day rather than eat a bag of candies throughout the day.

Tooth decay can be reduced by flossing (after dinner) and brushing the teeth with an electrical toothbrush (twice a day, after breakfast and dinner).

Does salt increase the risk of cardiovascular disease?

It's commonly thought that salt (actually the sodium from salt) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.

The maximum daily dose of sodium is 2300 mg, which means 6 g of table salt. This dose includes the sodium from the eaten food, it doesn't refer strictly to the sodium from the table salt that you add to food.

Too much salt has some effects which indirectly cause health problems, like creating cravings for sweets, that is, for sugar.

Which is better: fruits, fruit juice, vegetables or vegetable juice?

Fruit juice isn't fruit, it's water with sugar. The fact that the sugar comes from fruit makes no difference.

Avoid drinking fruit juice because it has the same amount of sugar as sodas, so they have the same negative effects on the body (both on the flora of the digestive system, and on the liver).

Fruit juice contains a concentrated amount of calories and acids, due to the high amount of natural sugar, more specifically, about the same amount as sodas, which is about 10%.

If you drink fruit juice, sip it with a straw in order to keep the acids off your teeth (as much as is possible).

Fresh fruit, in its entirety, has a positive health effect because its fiber makes it satiating and slows down the sugar absorption.

If you want to drink juice, choose (unsweetened, unsalted) vegetable juice, but still avoid drinking it in large quantities. There are practical advantages to drinking vegetable juice over eating vegetables, like availability (can be purchased all year around).

The amount of sugar from vegetable juice can be close to that from fruit juice. For example, beet juice contains about 10% sugar.

Tomato juice contains 2.5% sugar, but it often contains 2% salt (in grams), which for 1 liter is 20 g, several times the daily recommended amount.

Some people say to not eat many vegetables because they can't be digested by the body. Is that correct?

It can be, but the amount depends on how your body handles each type of vegetable.

Some vegetables may have to be cooked in order to make them easier to digest. It depends on each type of vegetable, and also on the specifics of your digestive system (mainly on what types of bacteria reside in your digestive system).

For example, it's unlikely that your digestive system requires apples and oranges to be cooked, but it's most likely that it requires potatoes and beans to be cooked.

An unfortunate side effect of eating vegetables and fruits is that the digestion of their fiber causes gas, but so does the digestion of carbohydrates; carbohydrates are also present in vegetables, fruits and nuts. The amount of gas produced depends on how you prepare the food for eating; for example, a cream soup of vegetable X produces less gas than the whole, uncooked vegetable X.

Is canned food safe?

Canned food is very practical, but it's important to understand its health effects, and what can be done to minimize the possible health risks.

In part, canned food is safe to eat if you throw away the fluid from the can (which is likely to contain particles from the material of the can, or a sugary sauce). Fat / oil should not be thrown down the drain because it solidifies and will clog the pipes.

However, despite the cooking at a high temperature and the complete insulation from the air outside, most canned food still contains preservatives to protect it from bacteria.

It's recommended for the fish to be canned in water / brine. If it's in oil, the oil isn't going to be of the best quality.

In modern times, the cans are made of steel, aluminum or tin, possibly coated inside with a plastic layer which prevents the metal from leaching into the food; some producers even use plastic envelops instead of metal. The healthiest choice is to use glass jars, but they are also the most expensive products (if available at all).

However, the plastic layer usually contains bisphenol-A. Some producers use a plastic layer which doesn't contain bisphenol-A, but there is no guarantee that the replacement is safer.

The problem is that the bisphenol-A (BPA), a chemical which may be dangerous to health, leaches into the food. The amount of leached bisphenol-A which ends up in the body depends on the type of food, with canned soup being by far the worst. This doesn't necessarily make the canned food unsafe, because the absolute amount of ingested bisphenol-A is still below the level which is considered safe.

Both Europe's and USA's food safety administrations say that bisphenol-A is safe to use in the packaging of foods.

Bisphenol-A is present in most plastics, including plastic water bottles, so it's quite difficult to avoid. There are some alternatives to this chemical, but there are no guarantees that they are any safer.

Buy canned food with a lower shelf life (below 5 years), presumably because these contain less preservatives.

Look for cans which are close to their manufacturing date, because the metal or plastic had less time to leach into the food.

Throw away the cans that are bulging, dented, cracked, leaking or rusted.

Wash the lid, especially its rim, before you open a can.

After you empty the can, smell it inside. If you have a tingly sensation, if it smells like metal / oxidation, don't buy that product / brand again. You may even be able to smell the oxidation in your breath, after you eat the food. Basically, the metal of the can has leached into the food, which makes it taste bad and unsafe in the long term.

Looking at meat from a metallic can, you can see that it's pink inside, but grayish on the outside. This is because the meat has oxidized on the outside. This doesn't happen with meat from glass jars.

If there is oil in the metal or plastic can, throw away the oil because it attracts bisphenol-A. Oil should not be thrown down the drain because it solidifies and will clog the pipes.

Throw away the liquid from the can because the it contains (more) microparticles from the material of the can (either metal or plastic). If possible, rinse the food with water.

Don't scrape (the inside of) the can.

Never cook food in the can, first move it in your normal cookware.

Since heat is normally used during canning, vitamins B and C are destroyed in part. However, this also happens during cooking at home, it's not limited to canning.

Should I do strenuous physical activity to lose weight?

Studies show that the average people don't lose weight if they do strenuous physical activity over long periods of time, and that the composition of their bodies doesn't change either. That's because the body is very efficient at energy consumption while doing strenuous physical activity (no matter how tired you feel afterward), because the body asks for the consumed energy to be replaced by eating afterwards, and because the caloric intake from small amounts of food overwhelms the calorie burning that happens during the strenuous physical activity.

Strenuous physical activity should be done for health reasons, not for losing weight.

However, simple exercise, like walking at an average pace, or even standing rather than sitting, should complement a healthy diet and may help losing weight because it doesn't triggering hunger to compensate the loss of energy (like strenuous physical activity does).

However, some types of strenuous physical activity may be particularly effective at removing fat from specific areas of the body. When you realize that you can't lose the fat from, say, your abdomen, by dieting, some strenuous physical activity may help you do that.

Why do I feel tired after eating?

A possible cause of fatigue after eating is that you've eaten a lot of carbohydrates, especially refined carbohydrates (like sugar, flour, cereals). The digestion of carbohydrates requires the body to generate insulin, and the need of the body to produce a high amount of insulin causes the fatigue.

Why do most people get fatter as they age?

This is because the physical activity of older people is reduced, because the body's basal metabolic rate (BMR) is slightly reduced with aging, yet people continue to eat as much as they were used to eat when they were young.

Older people should eat fewer calories than they were eating when they were young, in order to maintain their weight.

What are some general habits of people who maintain a normal weight?

Stop eating when their bodies tell them that they are full, not when their plates are empty, and not when their parents or friends tell them to stop.

Eat mostly unprocessed food, meaning the way it grows in nature, without heavy processing, without extracting it's "essence", without adding preservatives to it.

Avoid sugar.

Walk a lot (like an hour every day).

Prefer to stand or walk rather than sit.

How much alcohol is it safe to drink per day?

It's recommended to avoid drinking alcohol, or drink it only occasionally.

The USA and UK governments specify a maximum of 150 ml of wine (5 fluid ounces) (with 13% alcohol) for men and women, 400 ml (13 fluid ounces) of beer (with 5% alcohol). The USA government allows for men a maximum that's double, but, considering other sources, this appears to be too much. This amount is per day, you can't accumulate a week's amount in a single day of the week.

Since women generally have a lower mass than men, they should drink less than men in order to get the same amount of alcohol per unit of mass (kilogram or pound).

Constant alcohol drinking increases the risk of cancer. Studies show that daily drinking of an amount of alcohol found in 180 ml (6 fluid ounces) of wine increases the risk of cancer by 5%.

If you drink alcohol, do so only during meals in order to slow its assimilation.

You may have heard that in the Blue Zones, where there are more centenarians than usual, they drink wine. There is nothing magic about that wine. Those people drink wine because they are happy to be together with their family, while modern people drink because they feel lonely and miserable. That makes the difference in lifespan, not the wine.

Should I do what the studies say it's good for health?

One of the biggest problems of studies is that they are either performed in test tubes, on animals, or on very few people. You are neither of these and human bodies, maybe yours included, often reacts in opposite ways.

Worse, the researchers measure several (even tens) of health parameters, and in small studies one of them is bound to come out looking good / bad, looking as if eating whatever is studied has made a difference. But the difference exists because there is a huge variation in human physiology and behavior, and in environmental factors. And the more parameters are measured, the higher is the chance that one of them will look good / bad. This is why many studies of the same thing show opposite results.

For details, read the Skirts don't cause cancer principle.

But leaving aside the weakness of studies, what you should do depends on what matters to you. Is it health, happiness or a long life? Ask yourself how happy are the people who follow that path (compared to those who don't). Are you sure that something which appears to improve health also increases the life expectancy?

Studies don't normally look at these factors. In fact, some studies which do look at these factors show that even though some foods and life styles do improve various health characteristics, they don't increase the life expectancy of the people who eat those foods and have those life styles. In other words, in terms of longevity, the improved health has been lost in the noise of life. So, if people feel miserable when eating something and their life expectancy stays the same, why should you eat that?

Sometimes, a nutrient which shows a positive effect in a certain amount, shows a neutral or even a negative effect when the amount is increased. This is called hormesis. This is a possible explanation why, for example, antioxidants from some foods show a health benefit, but show none or a negative effect when the antioxidant is taken in a larger dose as part of a food supplement.

I hear a lot about antioxidants and polyphenols. Are they really good for health?

While you will hear that they are very good for your health, you will not hear how much the dose should be (= how much you should eat), how they compare with each other or with other things (= which one is worth the trouble), or by how much they improve your health.

Most studies regarding these things are done in test tubes, and at best on animals. People are neither of these and the human body often reacts in opposite ways, especially when you consider that it needs a large amount of these things in order to be affected by them.

There have been some studies done on people, but while some of them show health benefits, some show no health benefits, and some show a negative health impact.

The most important thing is that they don't cure any fatal disease, as claimed by the fans and sellers of the foods which contain antioxidants and polyphenols.

When you read any health claims about a nutrient, think about this: if it can't keep the common cold away, never mind heal it, how could it possibly keep away cancer or whatever other serious disease?

All of this is just not working. I barely eat, I have no energy and I'm still gaining weight. Why?

If you want to lose weight, you should avoid barely eating.

It's possible that your metabolism is storing calories rather than using them to generate energy. You may have to seek medical advice if you want to lose weight.

Does a diet with caloric restriction increase the lifespan?

Yes and no, depending on what you actually eat.

According to the largest such study, if you are eating a lot of refined carbohydrates (especially sugar), there is an increase in longevity if you then change to a calorie restricted diet. However, if you are eating very little refined carbohydrates, there is no increase in longevity if you then change to a calorie restricted diet.

Was cooking food necessary for human evolution?

Some people claim that cooking food has been an important factor in human evolution, and this claim is used as argument in favor of cooking food today.

However, cooking food was only a tool for, not a cause of, evolution. The actual cause was an increase of calorie availability in the diet of primates, calories which the body has used to develop, transform and evolve.

As it happens, in those times, cooking food was almost the only way that the primates could use to obtain more calories, since calorie rich foods were scarce.

Today, calories can be found in abundance without cooking, with virtually no physical effort, so cooking food is not necessary to increase the availability of calories.

Why do I have cramps in my soles / calves?

It's possible that you are missing some essential nutrients, like calcium or magnesium, but a simpler possible cause is that you're wearing shoes or slippers with soles which are too soft.

I had such cramps, and in my case the cause was the slippers.

The healthy alternative isn't necessarily the absence of slippers because the people who walk barefoot on hard surfaces (like tile or parquet) would have problems with the knees.

Any tips about wine?

Red wines are (usually) astringent, white wines are (usually) not astringent. Rose wines are in between. Astringency is a feeling in the mouth similar to that produced by the dentist's numbing spray.

The alcohol level of wine doesn't change with the wine's age. This is because the alcohol level remains fixed once the fermentation process ends (and wines are not sold before this happens). However, the changes which occur during the aging process do modify the perception of the alcohol level, usually amplifying the taste of alcohol.

If you dislike the taste of alcohol, try wine with an alcohol content around 7...8%, rather than the usual 12...14%. Also try this with a frizzante wine, that is, a lightly sparkling wine.

Any other advice?

Stress makes people eat more.

The digestion of the fiber present in vegetables (including seeds, nuts) and fruits causes gas, but the level varies wildly depending on the type of food and on the bacteria present in the digestive system.

The digestion of carbohydrates causes gas.

The digestion of fats and proteins doesn't cause gas.

Fruits, vegetables and nuts may cause colon contractions or spasms (a few hours after they are eaten).

It's recommended to not be obsessive about hygiene to the degree that you try to sterilize your hands / skin / body. The reason isn't, as it's commonly believed, to let your immune system practice fighting bad environmental bacteria, but to avoid destroying your microbiome, that is, the entirety of the good bacteria which has successfully protected you (from the bad bacteria) from birth.

Cooking tips

These tips are about cooking everyday food, in maximum 15 minutes, but they are not recipes.

All the heating powers below are specified for an induction cooktop with a maximum power of 14 (the power boost mode is extra). Therefore, all the values are very precisely expressed relative to the maximum (of 14). At heating power 14, the used electrical power is 2.3 KW, which is common for household induction cooktops.

Induction cooktop

An induction cooktop is an electrical cooktop which uses induction in order to directly heat the bottom of the cookware. This results in it working like a gas stove, where changing the heating power results in an immediate transfer of temperature changes on the cookware's bottom, and therefore on the food.

An induction cooktop is extremely efficient in transferring energy to the food, as the energy is only transferred to the iron in the bottom of the cookware, not around the cookware.

Unlike a gas cooktop, an induction cooktop always transfers the exact same electrical power to the food, for a given heating power. However, professional gas cooktops may be able to produce more heat, which some cooks may need.

An induction cooktop is hot only in the area where the cookware's bottom is in contact with the cooktop. The surrounding area remains cold to the touch.

An induction cooktop is very easy to clean because of its glass top, although some induction cooktops have a stainless-steel edge.

Since induction cooktops are already using electricity, they usually have an integrated timer, so they're great for timed cooking.

Gas burning produces water vapors, but induction doesn't, and this results in induction cooking producing less humidity in the kitchen. Keep in mind that the actual cooking of food produces water vapors because food contains a lot of water.

A plain electrical cooktop, without induction, directly heats the cooktop surface which then heats the cookware's bottom. Because of this, changing the heating power of the cooktop results in a slow transfer of temperature changes to the cookware's bottom. This slowness makes a plain electrical cooktop inferior to an induction cooktop.


After cooking, before you wash the cookware, wipe any fat / oil from it with paper towels and throw those in the trash bin. Fat / oil should not be thrown down the drain because it solidifies and will clog the pipes.

After you wash your cookware, wipe it dry as soon as possible, starting with the silverware; wash knives last and wipe them first. If you don't do this and let the water dry naturally, limestone (and even rust) marks will remain on stainless-steel, glass and ceramic.

If you get burn marks on a glass cooktop (like an induction cooktop has), the only way to remove them is to scrape them with an utility razor. Knives don't work (because the handle must be perpendicular on the blade in order to let you push the blade with force).

Cooking in a pan

When food has to be cooked in a pan, in oil, beginner cooks are likely to see: the food sticking to the pan, food that is burned underneath and around the edge, hot oil flying out of the pan, lots of smoke rising from the burning food and oil, burned / black oil in the pan, burn / black spots in the pan, and burn marks on the cooktop (underneath the pan).

All these problems are very simple to avoid: heat the pan at a medium power before you put the food in, and cook at a medium power.

At all times, the handle of the pan must be on your left / right, not toward you (/ the edge of the cooktop). This ensures that if anyone (like a child) accidentally pulls or presses on the handle downward, the hot oil and food doesn't fall over them.

Start by putting the pan on the cooktop and setting the power at medium. Pour some oil in the pan before you start the heat. In a stainless-steel pan the oil can be poured after the pan is hot, without fearing that the empty pan would degrade under heat.

If the pan has a non-stick coating, use one or two tablespoons of oil. The reason why you have to put oil in a non-stick pan is that there should be something in the pan to absorb the heat, not because it's going to keep the food from sticking to the pan (like is needed for a stainless-steel pan).

The oil should have a high smoke point. Extra virgin olive oil and butter have a low smoke point, although since you're cooking the food at a medium power, so the oil is sizzling not frying heavily, it's fine to also use extra virgin olive oil. Even butter is fine if you're using a medium heating power, but keep in mind that butter has a smell and taste that overpower the smell and taste of other foods. Refined oils have a higher smoke point than their unrefined / virgin versions. Clarified butter has a very high smoke point.

You should heat the pan at the power you intend to use for cooking. At heating power 9, leave the pan to heat for 3 minutes; at power 7, leave it for 4 minutes. It's fine to put the food in the pan even a few more minutes later, but keep in mind that the longer you heat the oil, the hotter it will get, and will start to smoke and sizzle when you put the food in the pan. From time to time, move the oil all around the bottom of the pan, by tilting the pan left to right (it's best to avoid tilting it toward you), to ensure that the non-stick coating doesn't overheat. When the oil heats, it becomes more liquid and it's easier to move it around by tilting the pan. There is no need for the oil to lubricate the vertical sides of the pan.

Once the pan is hot, if you want, you can wipe the oil off the pan using paper towels. Hold the paper with grill tongs, not with your hand! Careful, the oil is very hot and sticky!

You can now put food in the pan. Keep in mind that the food will cool down the pan a bit, so adjust the heating step if necessary. The food should be at room temperature, else it would cool down the pan and oil too much. If the food is meat and you're handling it vertically with grill tongs, place first in the pan the side of the meat which is hanging at the bottom, and then the upper part away form you, in order to avoid the oil splashing toward you (especially if you accidentally drop the meat in the pan).

Put in the pan vegetables (like a bell pepper). You can cook the vegetables separately from the meat.

Add seasoning in the pan.

Move the food around the pan in order to avoid it sticking to the pan. For eggs use a spatula, for meat use either a spatula or grill tongs.

The heating power at which cooking should be done is a matter of taste. A low power makes the food soft and cooked homogenously (throughout the food's thickness), whereas a high power makes the food crisp on the outside while the inside is less cooked (than the outside). Keep in mind that the crispy outside hardens as the food cools, and becomes unpleasant if the food is not eaten quickly.

In a pan which has a non-stick coating:

  • At heating power 10, water doesn't boil (even after 10 minutes), so its temperature is below 100 Celsius (212 Fahrenheit). It does boil lightly at power 12.

  • Oil sizzles lightly at power 10. I've used up to power 12 without smoke appearing.

  • Caramelization isn't happening at power 7, but it starts to happen at power 10.

  • From power 12, food starts burning if it's not moved around often, so you might want to have two pans around, one for vegetables, one for meat, to move the food easier around. At power 14, oil sizzles strongly in the pan.

As the heating power is increased, the oil starts to sizzle, the smell of the seasoning intensifies, and smoke may start to appear. Make sure to reduce the cooking time for the higher heating power.

I avoid cooking at powers above 11 because it's messy, and at 14 there is hot oil splashing, some smoke, the food gets burned easily, the food smell is quite intense, and requires a very fast cook.

If you add any fluid in the pan, the food (especially meat) will cook as if steamed instead of fried, so it will be soft and moist instead of crunchy. The same can happen if you cover the food with a lid.

If you add any fluid in the pan, the cooking time will have to increase because the fluid absorbs some of the heat that would otherwise go into the rest of the food.

Using a high heating power will evaporate the fluids from the pan, making the vegetables drier, so you should use a maximum heating power of 10 or use more fluids.

The easiest way to cook food is to put in the pan all the food (almost) at the same time. All the food would then be cooked at the same heating power, for the same amount of time, but each food may need to be cooked more or less. The only way to influence how much food gets cooked is the size of the cut of each food, from minced, to diced, to sliced. The smaller the cut is, the faster the food gets cooked.

In doesn't matter if the pieces are equal in size because having some pieces cooked less and some cooked more brings interesting variety. You can't cut bones (like the backbone of fish) with a normal knife, you have to chop it with a chopping knife.

Cooking with the skin can be useful for salmon, for example, which becomes flaky the more it's cooked; salmon can be cooked perfectly fine with or without the skin. The skin protects the meat from getting burned, but it also blocks its caramelization. An alternative is to cook the fish with skin for a few minutes, on the skin side, after which the fish can be flipped over to (easily) remove the skin, after which the fish can be flipped over again to continue cooking that side.

If the pan's bottom is covered with meat and the vegetables have to sit on top of the meat, the meat blocks the cooking of the vegetables.

When the food is overcrowded it will cook less than when it's not crowded, in the same amount of time.

If you follow these steps, you will have none of the issues above. While there will be no smoke, it's still a good idea to turn on the kitchen hood for practical reasons (like water vapors and lingering food smell). If you do see (a trace of) smoke raising from the pan, it's possible that the pan is not up to the task, that is, it heats up irregularly. While the oil may sizzle a bit in the pan, it will not splash out of the pan, unless you use the highest heating powers.

Have everything ready to eat because the food will cool down very quickly once it's out of the pan. So, if you want to add (uncooked) vegetables on the plate, chop them before you put the food in the pan, because you'll be busy moving the food around the pan, so you won't have time to do anything else. If you cook at a high heating power, the temperature of the food will be higher, so it will remain warm for longer.

If you want meat to get caramelized on the outside, you can do several things: increase the heating power so that you can see the oil sizzling, don't move the meat around the pan, put the meat over sizzling oil (make sure there is enough oil), avoid adding any fluid (other than oil) in the pan, use a stainless-steel pan (not a pan which has a non-stick coating).

Caramelization is blocked by covering the meat with a lot of seasoning because a protection layer is formed between the meat and the pan; salt is an exception because it melts quickly. Caramelization is also blocked by skin; if meat has skin on it, it will be soft and fatty under the skin.

Caramelization is blocked by fluids other than oil and butter (= fats).


Follow the steps from the section Cooking in a pan.

This is about cooking fish that cooks quickly, like salmon, dorada (gilt-head bream), sea bass, sardine, herring. Dorada and sea bass have a bland taste, so they need strong seasoning.

A portion (for a person) should be about 200...400 g (7...14.1 oz) of fish, depending on what you serve it with.

Take the fish out of the refrigerator and leave it at room temperature for a few minutes. You should lightly wash the fish with water.

I prefer to cut the fish in small pieces in order to cook it faster and to get it infused with more of the taste of the vegetables.

Cooking with the skin can be useful for salmon, for example, which becomes flaky the more it's cooked; salmon can be cooked perfectly fine with or without the skin. The skin keeps the meat soft and fatty, on the side with skin. It's possible to cook the fish with skin for a few minutes, on the skin side, after which the fish can be flipped over to (easily) remove the skin, after which the fish can be flipped over again to continue cooking that side.

You can season the fish, on both sides, or you can mix the seasoning with the vegetables.

Once the pan is heated, you can put the food in the pan.

Put in the pan vegetables (like a bell pepper).

Put the fish in the pan.

Cook the fish until the original color of the meat disappears, on the outside. For example, salmon is cooked well when it turns entirely whitish instead of pink. Once the fish in cooked on one side, flip the fish over (with a spatula / tongs) and cook the same way on the other side. Use either a spatula or grill tongs to move the fish around the pan in order to avoid it sticking to the pan.

If the fish is thick, like salmon, I cook it for 10...12 minutes at power 10. I flip it over at half time. This way, the fish is well cooked inside, without being overcooked on the outside. I've noticed that my body prefers the way I cook salmon (more white fat in between the salmon flakes) rather than how it's cooked at restaurants, but it's more likely just the difference in fish quality.

Herring is one fish that I think tastes better when it's crispier, so try cooking it at a high power, which also breaks down most of its tinny bones.

You could squeeze one lime or some lemon over fish, especially herring.


Follow the steps from the section Cooking in a pan.

Vegetables should be well cooked.

The smaller the food is cut, the faster it gets cooked. The less crowded the food is in the pan, the faster it gets cooked.

Some fresh vegetables that cook fast:

  • Bell pepper (large diced).

  • Mushrooms (sliced, if necessary). Examples: enoki, king oyster, pioppini, lion's mane, oyster, shiitake, maitake, beech, portobello.

  • Kohlrabi, turnip, beetroot (diced). The bits will still be a bit crunchy.

  • Zucchini (sliced).

  • Carrots (sliced).

  • Radish (sliced).

  • Cauliflower (small chunks).

  • Potatoes (very thin slices). The slices will still be a bit crunchy.

  • Onion (minced). The pungent taste will vanish entirely, unless the onion is very pungent, and will even start to become a bit sweet. The larger bits will still be a bit crunchy. Size should be small, as too much onion can cause digestive problems.

  • Garlic (sliced). The pungent taste will vanish entirely. The small slices will be soft.

  • Chili peppers (diced).

  • Tomatoes (sliced). Only meant to release their fluid in the pan.

In the pan, first add the onion and the bell pepper, and stir for a minute; then add the other vegetables. Onion absorbs all available oil and becomes soft, so don't put too much oil in the pan before cooking the onion for a minute. This layering will improve the smell of the food.

You may have to add in the pan some fluids other than the initial cooking oil, like: (olive) oil, lime or lemon juice, tomato juice. Various vegetables, like tomatoes and beetroot, release some of their juice. As the vegetables are cooked, the fluid will thicken, but will ultimately evaporate.

Adding in the pan fluids like water or orange juice has a steaming effect on the vegetables, which is not what you want in fried vegetables.

If you add in the pan canned vegetables, since these are already cooked, you can add them after the other vegetables have been cooking for a few minutes. Throw away the liquid from the can because it contains (more) microparticles from the material of the can (either metal or plastic). If possible, rinse the food with water.

Frozen vegetables have to be cooked 10...15 minutes, depending on their size.

The "output" of beetroot will be red, so you should not worry that you're bleeding.


Follow the steps from the section Cooking in a pan.

If you're making scrambled eggs, put the eggs in a bowl, add seasoning and whisk the eggs.

You can add (in the bowl) fermented cheese which doesn't melt. There are types of cheese that you can put in the pan from the beginning, which will barely melt, like white hard cheese.

If you want to add fresh vegetables (like bell pepper) to scrambled eggs, you can put them in the pan together with the eggs. You can also cook them first for a few minutes, then move them in the bowl with eggs, mix, and put the whole mix in the pan.

Heat the pan at heating power 7 for 4 minutes; at power 9 heat it for 3 minutes. Once the pan is heated, put the eggs in the pan.

Add seasoning over the eggs. Mint gives eggs a fresh, breakfast-like taste.

You can add salt at any time, either at the beginning or at the end of cooking, with virtually the same result. Some people say it should be added only at the end, but my experiments don't show a difference (I'm using Himalayan salt).

From time to time, at least if you cook at high heat, insert a spatula under the eggs and move them around the pan in order to ensure that the eggs don't stick to the pan and that the oil doesn't burn.

If you don't stir the eggs in the pan (sunny-side-up eggs can't be stirred, but scrambled eggs can be), cook the eggs at power 7 for 8 minutes. For sunny-side-up eggs, let the eggs cook until the white becomes solid but the yolk is still liquid. A slightly liquid egg yolk is easier to eat and digest.

If you prefer faster cooking, cook the eggs at power 9 for 3 minutes. Then, sunny-side-up eggs can be flipped over and cooked for 1 more minute; alternatively, you can use a spoon to move the hot oil from the pan over the eggs, but it's much more effort. Scrambled eggs are whisked with a spatula, so the eggs which are still liquid on the top can flow under the cooked eggs and cook.

Once the cooking is finished, you can put on the eggs cheese which melts quickly, like the yellow-colored hard cheese; this will continue to melt even though the heat is off, because the eggs are still hot.

You can add various vegetables that don't need to be cooked, like fresh tomatoes.


Have ready 100...150 g (3.5...5.3 oz) of pasta, per person. It's that little because pasta is very satiating when combined with other foods, like cheese.

When you decide what type of pasta to use, note that shell-shaped pasta is unlike any other type of pasta because each shell may trap moisture and other parts of food inside, like other shells, sauce or minced meat, making each shell like a small package. This is very interesting because the moisture makes oil / fats / sauce unnecessary and, for example, when several shells clump together, the texture becomes a bit firmer for the same amount of cooking.

Get a pot that can contain all the pasta that you'll be cooking, and has some space left for the water to boil. For 2 portions, the pot's volume should be at least 2 liters / quarts. Put cold water in the pot. The water should more than cover the pasta because some of the water will evaporate.

Put a lid on the pot and let the water boil at the highest power of the cooktop.

Once the water starts to boil, turn the kitchen hood on in order to absorb the water vapors, and take the lid off the pot. When exposed to the colder air, the boiling will cool down for a few moments.

Put the pasta in the pot. The pasta will absorb some heat from the water, so the boiling will reduce for a few seconds. After that, a foam will start to bubble up from the water and try to overflow from the pot, so you must reduce the heating power enough to stop the foaming, but keep the water boiling. I use power 12 or 13, depending on how the water is boiling (which, oddly enough, depends on the type of used pasta).

Add seasoning in the pot, especially salt. Mint gives pasta a fresh, breakfast-like taste.

Some seasoning will make the water foam and bubble up, so be ready to stir it in order to slightly reduce the temperature of the water (or temporarily reduce the heating power). The pasta will absorb a bit of the seasoning; for example, salt will make the pasta taste a bit salty. Most seasoning will remain in the water, so the amount of seasoning has to be quite high. If you want all the seasoning to be served with the pasta then put it in a sauce.

For fine salt, add about half of a teaspoon per liter / quart of water. For coarse salt, add about three-quarters of a teaspoon. For Himalayan coarse salt, add about a teaspoon, because it's less salty than table / sea salt.

Some types of cheese are so salty that you don't need to add any salt for seasoning.

You should keep the water boiling for at least the amount of time specified on the pasta package. Personally, I find that the time from the package always produces severely undercooked pasta, so, for example, if the package says to cook them for 7...8 minutes, I cook them for 15; the time from the package is probably for cooking at the maximum heating power (which requires a very large pot to keep the roiling water in).

From time to time, stir the pasta in order to keep it from sticking to the pot's bottom.

Be extremely careful when you (slowly) pour the pasta into a colander to drain the water! The water was just boiling and will splash in the direction in which you pour it, so pour it away from yourself and away from other people and pets!

Make sure to have everything ready to eat because the pasta will cool very quickly once it's out of the boiling water.

To blunt negative effect of a large amount of carbohydrates, in particular the refined ones, like a massive insulin rise, add a significant amount of fat, like extra virgin olive oil or fermented cheese, or pickles in vinegar.

Pike fish eggs

Fisherman recipe for (pike) fish eggs, refined by my mother.

Because they are eaten raw, fish eggs must be preserved with salt for a minimum of two weeks in order to destroy any bacteria they may contain. Nothing other than salt should be in the fish eggs. I've never heard of farmed pike, so it's likely only wild.

Ingredients: 100 grams (3.5 oz) of fish eggs, 120 grams (4.2 oz) of oil, 1 teaspoon of vinegar (average wine vinegar), lemon juice squeezed from a quarter of a lemon, water (only if the fish eggs are too viscous), a small onion. Using less oil than what is specified is not recommended.

In the original recipe, the oil is canola oil because (my mother said that) its taste is more neutral. The taste does seem slightly better with canola oil than with olive oil.

Place the fish eggs in a soup plate (because of its depth). Using a fork, softly move the fish eggs around to find the threads and other abnormal things that have to be removed. It's easier to work with a large fork.

Add the vinegar in the fish eggs and softly mix it in.

Add oil, little by little, while you continue to mix the fish eggs. If the fish eggs are too viscous, add a tablespoon of water.

When all the oil is in the fish eggs, cut the onion very finely and mix it in the fish eggs.

The fish eggs can be served spread on (toast) bread. The entire preparation and serving is meant to offset the fatty nature of the prepared fish eggs. Personally, I eat about half of the resulted fish eggs, with 100 grams (4 slices) of (toast) bread, although that is too fatty for most people.

The fish eggs should be taken out of the refrigerator one hour before they are prepared, to reach room temperature. If the fish eggs are cold then the oil must be cold too; the plate should also be cold.

While the fish eggs can be mixed the day before you eat them, the onion must be added at the time of eating.

The mixing must be done in a single direction, not in both, and without interruption (other than that necessary to add the ingredients) from the moment the preparation begins.

This recipe makes very high density fish eggs compared to store bought prepared fish eggs (where a lot more oil is used).

The type of fish eggs is critical for the quality of the result. You can see this before you prepare them. For example, pike fish eggs have little interstitial matter and this makes them look and taste very well defined. On the other hand, carp fish eggs have a lot of interstitial matter and this makes them look and taste mushier and fattier.

Tools to use

One or two pans with a 25...28 cm (10...11 in) diameter. While you don't necessarily need the space for eggs, you need it for vegetables and meat. You can start with a single pan.

A pot with a volume of 3...4 liters / quarts.

One or two chopping boards of 45 * 30 cm (18 * 12 in) each, made of soft wood (to reduce the wear of knives). You can work with slightly smaller ones. You can start with a single board.

A chef's knife with an 18 cm (7 in) blade. Learn to cut vegetables with the rocking method.


Vegetable peeler, the vertical kind (with a blade perpendicular on the handle).

Various tips

Don't use too many types of vegetables in one meal. Focus on making the vegetables and the meat taste as good as possible.

When you add seasoning to the food which is in a hot pan or pot, you expose the spoon with seasoning (or the seasoning itself) to hot water vapors, and if you reuse that spoon to get more seasoning from a seasoning jar, that jar will get wet inside. So, before you put the seasoning on the food, gather it all elsewhere, like in a small cup.

In pans that have a non-stick coating, use silicone tools (not stainless-steel tools because they can scratch the non-stick layer). Food fragments stick to plastic / nylon, but not to silicone, when used in pans with sizzling oil. Silicone is also more resilient than plastic / nylon.

Seasoning to try: salt, lime / lemon juice, herbes de Provence, peppercorn (powder), (granulated) garlic, coriander, ginger (powder), dill, parsley, dry mint, chili. Mint works with spicy foods too. The smell of fresh mint is too strong for most food. Put all seasoning in a small cup, and mix it.

Be careful with store bought seasoning. For example, most powder seasoning contain around 50% salt. Why? Because similar seasoning but without the salt is twice the price. The problem is that the salt makes it impossible to adjust the flavor with more seasoning, since the amount of salt is proportionally increased. Also, make sure they don't contain food additives and preservatives because they are not required and don't improve anything for you.

Dry seasoning, like the store bought ones, have a less intense smell than fresh seasoning.

Maximizing lifespan

To maximize your lifespan, do the following as much as possible:

  • Decrease stress.

  • Avoid loneliness.

  • Go to sleep early, before midnight, and sleep for about 8 hours per night.

  • Do physical exercise. Walking outside for 30...60 minutes per day is fine.

  • Have a diet which keeps away excessive body fat. Keep your BMI under 25; very muscular people can have a higher BMI. This reduces the number and severity of the potential accidents that can break hips and bones.

  • Avoid breaking hips or bones after the age of 65 years.

  • Avoid being insulin resistant (diabetics are insulin resistant).

  • Avoid smoking.

  • Avoid alcohol.

  • Minimize the consumption of ultra processed food (= the kind made mostly in a factory), sugar, refined carbohydrates (like sugar, flour, cereals).


In order to allow the body to regenerate to the maximum extent possible, and to maximize your level of energy during the day, you should follow the advice below.

Eat light in the evening, preferably with several hours before going to sleep.

In the evening, avoid eating a significant amount of vegetables, fruits and foods that contain refined carbohydrates (especially sugar), because fiber and carbohydrates cause gas, so abdominal pressure, and water, which creates pressure that has to be eliminated during the night.

Go to sleep before midnight, else various hormones won't get a chance to act.

If you have to go to sleep toward the morning, like if you work night shifts, try the following:

  • Sleep for more than 8 hours.

  • Take more time to relax.

  • Have periods of time when you go to sleep before midnight. For example, alternate night shifts and day shifts.

  • Remove from your diet foods which are likely to amplify microbiota imbalance (like nuts, sugar, dairy), to see if you feel better.

The bedroom should be as dark as possible. Any (night) light in the first part of the night will block the production of various hormones, which will restrict the body's ability to regenerate. Noise will have a similar effect.

Ideally, you should sleep as much as your body needs to wake up without an alarm clock (or any noise).

Wake up early, once sunlight becomes strong. Expose yourself to strong sunlight as soon as possible. For even better results, expose yourself to clean, fresh and slightly cold air as soon as possible.

An agitated sleep or the lack of dreams could be indicating that you are stressed, and this means that your body, especially your brain, can't fully regenerate.

A restless and unsatisfactory sleep may make you look frowny in the morning.

If you like to read books before sleep, read this.

How long to sleep

When it comes to food, the general advice is to not rely on feeling fine, but rather eat according to the nutrition advice of the day, because you could have a heart attack at any time even if you feel fine. But when it comes to sleep, the advice is that you can sleep for a short time so long as you feel fine. Isn't that funny? Yet, this is the best we can do.

If you wake up because of an alarm clock (or any noise), or because of artificial light, it means that your body doesn't have the opportunity to regenerate to the maximum extent, and the effects will be visible after years or decades.

It doesn't matter that you can sleep for 6 hours and feel fine.

Elsewhere, you'll hear things that confuse you, because some people, including researchers, don't (want to) understand the difference between what people can afford to do and what is healthier to do. This is why you'll hear claims like "this is how people used to sleep".

The fact that people used to sleep interrupted, and in an environment which was noisy and which was not dark (they were sleeping under Moonlight), simply means that was all that people could afford to do, not that it's what the body needs.

Also, the fact that some people sleep with their TV on, simply means that people use the TV to drown the environmental noise, not that the body needs some noise.

Also, the fact that some people dislike sleeping in an absolutely quiet environment simply means people know and fear that some environmental sounds will disrupted their sleep, not that the body needs some noise.

Some people feel more tired, even have headaches, if they sleep for 8 hours instead of 6.5 hours, and they mistakenly believe that this means that it's better to sleep 6.5 hours. But this is a wrong interpretation of what is happening.

The brain can go through multiple cleaning cycles during sleep / night, during which it flushes out the trash that has been produced inside the brain during the day. The problem is that if such a cycle is interrupted, tiredness and headaches will follow. This is similar to trying to stop peeing while in the middle of peeing, when something startles you. However, if the brain wakes up between cycles, there is no such problem. At the same time, if there are fewer cleaning cycles, the brain won't be as clean as it could be, and the effects of the accumulation of the trash in the brain will manifest years or even decades later.

So, while for some people it may be better to sleep for 6.5 hours instead of 8, it could be healthier to sleep for up to 9 hours instead of 6.5.

From personal experience, I can say that sleeping less than 6 hours, even for a single night, is catastrophic for the brain.

How much you should sleep depends on the time of day when you go to sleep, the time of day when you wake up, and how many cleaning cycles the brain goes through. Sleeping more time than your body needs doesn't mean that more brain cleaning cycles will occur.

If you were to sleep in a dark and quiet room, away from regular life's stress, and you didn't have to wake up during the night to pee, and you didn't have any illness keeping you from sleeping, and no alarm clock were to wake you up, how long would you sleep? That's how much sleep you really need. The inability to sleep that long every day doesn't change the way biology works.

Sleeping too much

Some people say that sleeping for too long has negative health effects. However, this is a correlation, not a causation.

The only people who sleep over 9 hours every day are people who have a health problem, for example they go to sleep in the morning instead of before midnight, or have some health problems which cause them to sleep for longer than normal.

How can you be sure of this? How many people do you know who normally sleep for 8 hours every day, but can choose to sleep for over 9 hours every day? Virtually nobody can choose. Why? Because the human body doesn't need that much sleep every day. The people who do sleep for that long, do so because a health problem requires their body to sleep a lot longer than normal, which means that sleep duration is an indicator / effect, not a cause of those problems.

Put differently, if the people who sleep for 10 hours every day were to choose to sleep only 8 hours, they wouldn't be healthier because the long sleep period isn't causing their problems. In fact, they might be less healthy because their body isn't able to recover (during sleep) to the same degree.

During my experience with inflammation, even when I was sleeping over 9 hours per night, I was still feeling tired.

Aside from specific health problems, some general problems to consider are what's actually happening during a longer sleep: a higher accumulation of carbon dioxide, and increases in temperature and humidity, in the bedroom. Carbon dioxide causes negative health effects (like headaches). An excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood is called hypercapnia.

This accumulation is particularly bad in small bedrooms, and is proportional with the number of people sleeping there. When this is combined with heat and water vapors, sleep quality degrades dramatically. You can see this difference when you sleep with a window closed or open during a hot summer day (if you have no air conditioning). Unfortunately, most people can't sleep with a window open due to noise or chemical pollution. If you do have air conditioning, you have to also consider the accumulation of bacteria within the air conditioning system, bacteria which may degrade your sleep quality and impact your health.

Health tests

The following blood tests should be performed in the morning, before 10 AM.

Don't eat (or drink anything other than water) for at least 12 hours (for all tests) before the blood sample is drawn. Don't take multivitamin supplements for at least 48 hours (/ 2 days) before the blood sample is drawn.

The reference values below are orientative only, for adults, and may vary based on age, gender, ethnicity, time of day and lab used to perform the test. The test report should contain the proper reference values or risk factor.

The top limit of the reference values below are set so as to include people who have mild health problems, so getting a value at the top limit doesn't mean "healthy", it means "average".

If the results of the tests are outside of the specified range of values, the diet may be causing health problems, meaning that it may also be possible to correct it through diet.

To convert from mg/dL to mmol/L, divide the specified value with 18.

Evaluating cardiovascular risk

Blood pressure (at rest; can be done at home):

  • Systolic. Should be = 90...120 mmHg.

  • Diastolic. Should be = 60...80 mmHg.

Heart rate (at rest; can be done at home). Should be = 60...90 beats per minute; rates as low as 40 are common in healthy people, at rest.

Blood tests:

  • TG (Triglycerides). Should be < 150 mg/dL.

  • ApoB (Apolipoprotein B-100). Should be < 100 mg/dL.

  • ApoA1 (Apolipoprotein A1). Should be > 120 for men, and > 140 mg/dL for women.

  • Lp-PLA2 (LipoProtein-associated PhosphoLipase A2). Should be < 200 ng/mL.

  • Lp(a) (Lipoprotein a). Should be < 30 mg/dL. It's largely determined by genetics.

  • HDL (High Density Lipoprotein). Should be > 40 mg/dL for men, and > 50 mg/dL for women.

  • LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein). Should be < 130 mg/dL.

  • OxLDL (Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein). Should be < 70 mg/dL.

  • sdLDL (Small Density LDL). Should be < 46 mg/dL.

  • hs-CRP (High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein). Should be < 1 mg/dL.

  • Homocysteine. Should be < 15 mcmol/L.

Combined rules for decreased risk:

  • As HDL increases (especially over 60 mg/dL) the cardiovascular risk decreases even if LDL is high. Increasing HDL with medication didn't decrease the cardiovascular risk in studies. Eating (saturated and unsaturated) fats tends to increase HDL, but saturated fats also increase LDL. Also increase HDL: omega 3 (supplements), magnesium (supplements), weight loss (toward ideal weight).

Combined rules for increased risk:

  • ApoB / ApoA1 < 0.77 for men, ApoB / ApoA1 < 0.63 for women.

  • TG / HDL > 2.7 for men, TG / HDL > 1.7 for women.

  • TG > 200 and ApoB > 130.

If you're trying to optimize your diet to reduce cardiovascular risk, take into consideration the results of all the tests and combined rules, not just one result. One result which is out of the recommended range may not necessarily indicate a high risk, but several of them will surely do.

Evaluating general risk

Hemogram. Is a panel of tests which measure various blood components, like hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leucocytes), thrombocytes.

Monocytes (a type of white blood cells; should be included in hemogram; absolute count). Should be = 200...800 / mcL. Evaluates inflammation.

Carbon dioxide (bicarbonate). Should be = 23...29 mmol/L. Evaluates lung or kidney disorders, respiratory or metabolic disorders, diabetic ketoacidosis, Addison disease.

Cortisol. Should be = 5...25 mcg/dL. Evaluates stress response, adrenal gland function.

Omega 3 (O3), Omega 6 (O6), DHA, EPA, AA (Arachidonic Acid). Should be O6 / O3 = 3...5, AA / EPA = 2.5...11. Evaluates cell membrane fluidity.

IGF1 (Insulin-like Growth Factor). Reference range varies based on age; for 50 year old people should be around 120 ng/ml. Evaluates cancer risk, but uncertain. Dairy fermentation reduces the IGF1 which is normally present in milk.

Fasting glucose. Should be = 70...100 mg/dL. Evaluates insulin resistance.

Fasting insulin. Should be < 10 mcU/mL. Evaluates insulin resistance.

HbA1c (Glycated Hemoglobin). Should be < 5.7%. Evaluates diabetes risk.

ALT (Alanine Amino Transferase). Should be = 7...40 U/L for men, and = 7...35 U/L for women. Evaluates liver function.

AST (Aspartame Amino Transferase). Should be = 14...20 U/L for men, and = 10...36 U/L for women. Evaluates liver function.

GGT (Gamma Glutamyl Transferase). Should be < 55 U/L for men, and < 38 U/L for women. Evaluates liver and bile ducts function.

Bilirubin. Should be (total) = 0.3...1.0 mg/dL. Evaluates liver and bile ducts function.

Uric acid. Should be = 3.5...7.2 mg/dL, and = 2.6...6.0 mg/dL for premenopausal women. Evaluates kidney function.

Creatinine. Should be = 0.6...1.2 mg/dL for men, and = 0.5...1.1 mg/dL for women. Evaluates kidney function.

eGFR (Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate). Should be > 90 (mL/min/1.73 m2). Evaluates kidney function.

Minerals (sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, magnesium). Evaluates kidney function.

TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone). Should be = 0.4...4.0 mcU/mL. Evaluates thyroid function.

Testosterone (for men). Reference range varies based on age; for 50 year old men should be around 500 ng/mL.

Free testosterone (for men).

Iron (especially for women). Evaluates possible anemia, weakness.

Evaluating inflammation and infection

Zonulin. Should be = 20...48 ng/mL. Evaluates the permeability of tight junctions between cells of the wall of the digestive system (= leaky gut).

DAO (Diamine Oxidase, histamine intolerance). Should be > 10 U/mL in serum only, > 20 U/mL in whole blood. Evaluates histamine intolerance. People who have histamine intolerance should avoid: fermented foods and drinks (= cheese, cured / preserved meat, fermented vegetables and fruits, wine, beer), dairy products, eggs, avocados, nuts, fish, tomatoes, spinach, eggplant, soy, mushrooms, citrus fruits, bananas, strawberries, chocolate.

Helicobacter Pylori Antibodies IgG. Evaluates chronic gastritis, stomach infection, ulcer. Causes very common infections.

Evaluating toxicity

If you suspect that you were exposed to kitchenware toxicity, consider these tests.

Arsenic (inorganic only). Should be < 13 ng/mL. Evaluates acute (= short term) poisoning with arsenic. Arsenic can be detected in blood within maximum 2 days after ingestion / exposure.

Heavy metals (found especially in colored glass and porcelain, crystal glasses and bottles, old tooth fillings; may have to be checked in urine):

  • Cadmium. Should be < 2 ng/mL. Evaluates poisoning with cadmium.

  • Mercury. Should be < 10 ng/mL. Evaluates poisoning with mercury.

  • Lead. Should be < 10 mcg/dL. Evaluates poisoning with lead.

  • Various: antimony, chromium, copper, cobalt, iron, manganese, nickel, selenium, sulfur, tin.

Urine tests

Arsenic (inorganic only). Evaluates chronic (= long term) poisoning with arsenic.

Oxalate. Evaluates poisoning with oxalate.


See here.

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